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April 15, 2008 (Tuesday)  Original

June 6, 2014 (Friday)    Condensed and presented to NTU Medical English class

December 2, 2014 (Tuesday)    Updated

 

A

 

                商漢語: 漢人傳統漢語  

                                    漢語胡化簡史

    商漢語(河洛漢語/台語)胡化成胡漢語(國語/普通話)年代表

 

A chronicle of non-sinicization (胡化) of Han Chinese language:

Conversion of Shang language or Heluo Chinese language (商漢語/河洛漢語) into Beijing Mandarin Chinese language (胡漢語/北京漢語) over a period of 887 years (1127 -2014)

(This chronicle results from Robert S. Hsu’s original research, revised April, 2014)

 

                                                 許松勇

         

                                    (清乾隆福建漳州人入台10世孫)

                                  (本篇為神農子社會科學創作作品

 

 

2070BC-1660BC     

    夏國 the Xia State

    The royal family imperialism (家天下) began in China.

1,600BC-1,046BC ( 1,562BC-1,066BC) 

    商國  the Shang State

Oracle bone script 甲骨文 of the late Shang was engraved on the turtle

    shells (bones) which were excavated at Anyan Henan.  It was referred

    to as the Shang script 商漢語 

1949: The turtle shells and bones bearing the script were moved over to

    Taipei by President Chiang Kai-shek and are now housed in Academia

    Sinica Taipei.

2012:  <甲骨文字編> 出版 李宗焜編著 (ROC 中央研究院歷史語言研

    究所副研究員) 收至今甲骨文漢字 4, 378個字, PRC 中華書局出

    2012)o

Thus, I define the people of Xia and Shang states as the Han Chinese (

    ) who created the Shang script (甲骨文) as the Han Chinese language

    (商漢語)

No precursors to Oracle bone script have as yet been found prior to the

    Shang State.

1,046BC-256BC 

    周國  the Zhou State

周滅商後, ()人將殷商貴族遷至洛陽, 向他們學漢字/漢字音

    The Zhou State extinguished the Shang State.

Zhou tribes were the first non-Chinese people (胡人) who extinguished the

    Han state, learned the Han Chinese language and became the Han

    Chinese (漢人).

A multitude of the Shang aristocratic clan (貴族) and subjects fled the

    North China heartland (中原) to Korea and the Han civilization had

    flourished there since then for over 2 millennia before Korea started its

    de-sinicization (去中國化).in 1446.

    Evidence:  Korean last name chia,  the secretary-general of the U.N.

    潘基文  Ban Ki-moon,  the recent South Korean song   江南style

    kangnam style,    南韓現代汽車公司  Hyundai Motor Company   南韓

    學者認為他們發明漢字 而且  擁有孔子

        The current Korean language has 50 to 60 percent phrases borrowed

        from the Han Chinese language.

     1446: 韓文(朝鮮文) 正式創制出版, 稱為 <訓民正音)>, 取代 `商漢

        , 但至今幾乎所有韓人都使用3個字的漢字姓名       

121

    漢國 The Han State

東漢 許慎 將個人著作<說文解字> 字典 獻給漢皇帝

1970: 神農子購得整套  <說文解字詁林>(後世訓詁學者群增訂, 12

    , 台灣商務印書館出版);   發現傳統切韻的漢字注音 每個漢字都

    是台語音, 感到 12萬分震驚!!!  

Hsu Shen completed compiling Shuo Wen Jie zi  in 100AD but waited

     until 121AD before he had his son present it to the Emperor of Han

     Empire.  No pronunciation was provided for each of  9,353 Han

     Chinese characters until the introduction of the Qieyun (切韻)

     pronunciation system (河洛漢語音) in 601.

For the 1st time in China’s history, Han Chinese characters are categorized

    by 540 radicals (部首).

601

隋國 the Sui State

 <切韻> 成書, 作者有8, 中華文明史上第一部全國統一漢字讀書音

    注音字典, 原著已失傳, 增訂版仍在!

各漢字切韻注音 商漢語/河洛漢語/洛陽話/閩南語/台語音(過半數

    漢字切韻 也可切出 胡漢語/北京漢語/國語/普通話音; 許多漢字只

    有台語音, 無國語音)

<切韻> 乃直接證據, 證明漢人傳統漢語音是 今日台語讀書音!

創『科舉』制度, 以洛陽讀書音為漢字『正音』(即河洛漢語音)

舉例:  『角』  切韻注音 古岳切  商漢語音 ko4 gak 切成 kak4; 切不出

    胡漢語音 腳 jiao3 或 決 jue2

Qieyun (or Chie-yun) Rime Dictionary was the 1st dictionary that provided

    pronunciation for each Han Chinese character.

Duenhuang Caves (Mogao Caves) has an incomplete manuscript about

    three fourths of the original in content.

    706:

    Qieyun was revised and expanded for the 2nd time.

1947:

A nearly complete manuscript of the 706 edition was found in the

     Palace Museum (北京 故宮博物院).

    751:

    Qieyun was further revised as <唐韻> Tangyun, which is lost to history.

618 (-907) 

    唐國  the Tang State

701-894:

唐長安漢字音 乃 台語讀書音!

Japan sent envoys and students to Tang Empire Capitol City Chang An to learn

    Han Chinese language including script and pronunciation.

Today, there are 4,778 commonly used Han Chinese characters in total in the

    Japanese language.  Each of the Han characters usually has both the Japanese

    own pronunciation known as Xun Du (訓讀音) and the Phonetic

    pronunciation (音讀音) learned at Chang An.

 Evidence that Japanese Phonetic pronunciation of Han characters developed

    from Chang An and 商漢語 (台語)音 in Taiwan are nearly identical:

    美人 bi jin,  起源 ki gen, 貿易 bou eki (i是是日語尾), 武器

   bu ki,  眼球 gan kyuu   軍人 gun jin  月收 ge shuu (每月收

   期間   ki kan  侮辱する  bujokusuru    描写するbyousya

    suru    舞台   bu tai

    (For more examples, visit  www.robertsonghsu.com)

909 (-945)

    閩國 the Min State

唐末, 王審知 (河南人) 率河南人移民福建, 建立閩國 (福建人 = 河南

    移民 福建原住民), 故福建/神州大地被台灣人稱為唐山!

916 (-1125)  

遼國 The Liao State

Founder: Yelü clan (耶律) of the Kitan

Domain:  Portions of Russia Far East, Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Liaoning

    Province, northern Korea, northern Hebei (including Beijing as its

    Southern Capitol 南京)

Southern neighboring states:  Contemporaneous with 5 Dynasties (五代),

    10 states (十國). (Northern) Song 

Ethnicity: Kitans (khitans, Qidans) 契丹人 (說文解字: , 苦計 , kou4

    ki4 切成 ki4)

    Non-Chinese nomadic tribes originating in eastern Inner Mongolia 內蒙.

    Chinese scholars consider Kitans the posterity of Xianbei tribes (鮮卑

   )

    The Empire also ruled the Rhuzhen (jurchens) and Han Chinese

        population.   

    遼(契丹人)/金(女真人)/元(蒙古人)/清(滿州人)等, 皆征服漢人/歧視

        漢人, 這些胡人學漢字, 改漢字音, 也另造契丹文/女真文以取代

        漢字!

    遼(契丹人)/金(女真人)/元(蒙古人)皆定都北京, 創造/推廣漢字北京

        漢語音(國語/普通話音)

Language:

    Used Mongolian language before they created khitan language (script)

    契丹文 from Han Chinese Characters and used it officially for

    administration.

    契丹 Kitan, Khitan (商漢語/河洛漢語/洛陽話/閩南語/台語), Qidan

    (胡漢語/北京漢語/國語/普通話)

    Had 5 capitols in different administrative regions: Including Beijing

    (時稱 南京 the capitol of Southern Region), the 1st time Beijing became

    a capitol city of a state.

    Started developing Mandarin Chinese language pronunciation from <

    > (神農子 original research)

    Had dual prime ministers: Kitan prime minister and Han Chinese prime

    minister, respectively heading Kitan and Tang administrative system. 

1125: The Rhuzhen overthrew Liao State in 1125AD.

960 (-1279)

    宋國 The Song State

    The Song Empire was founded by Zhao Family.. .

    1008:

宋官版<廣韻> 成書, 使用<切韻>漢字音(台語音)

The Song officially published Guang Yun  with a total of 26,192 Han

    characters

    1039:

宋官版<集韻> 成書, 使用<切韻>漢字音(台語音)

The Song officially published Ji Yun with a total of 53525 entries and

    32,381 Han characters.      

    1005, 1042:

    宋國向遼國 稱臣納貢

Song Empire concluded treaties in 1005 and 1042 with the Liao under

    which the Song empire accepted inferior states and paid annual tribute

    to the Liao.

1115 (-1234)

金國 The Jin State

Founder: Wanyan clan (完顏).of the Rhuzhen .

Domain: Liao domain plus North China heartland ceded by the Song

    Empire (North China heartland consists of Xaanxi, Jiangxi, Henan,

    Xandong, Hebei. 

    The Jin Empire ruled Mongols in Mongolia as a vassal.

Southern neighboring state:  (Southern) Song

Ethnicity:  Rhuzhen (Jurchens) 女真人 (說文解字: , 尼呂 , li4 lu3

    lu4)

    Non-Chinese nomadic tribes inhabiting Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang.

    Distant descendants of Turks and Mongols.

Language:

    Had 5 capitols: Beijing, Kaifong, etc.

    The Jin government had 3 separate structures, each following Jurchen

        customs, Liao’s institution, the Song institution, respectively.

    Created Rhuzhen language from Han Chinese characters and used it

        officially..

    Ruled North China heartland for 107 years and continued replacing Han

        Chinese language (洛陽話) with Beijing’s Mandarin Chinese

        language (國語/普通話)

    女真 Rhuzhen (河洛漢語/洛陽話/閩南語/台語), Nüchen (北京漢語/

         國語/普通話)

1127:

    The Jin seized and conquered Song’s Kaifeng (開封, 時稱汴京); the Jin

        took over major portion of North China heartland; Song moved capitol

        to Hangzhou (杭州)

From then on the Jin ruled North China heartland for 107 years (1127-

    1234) before the empire was overthrown by the Mongols in 1234. 

    The Jin replaced Han Chinese language with Bejing Mandarin language,

    a process known as non-sinicization (胡化) of Han Chinese Language

    (漢語胡化)!

中原漢語開始胡化!   

1141

 宋皇室 激辯 王道政治 (當代留美史學家 余英時(PhD/Professor) 著書

    2冊詳述此事)

The Song adopted the doctrine of benevolent rule (孟子仁政) as

    propounded by Mencius (372BC – 289BC)

The resistance to Jin attacks was hamstrung (crippled by cutting the tendon

    hamstrings) by controversy over whether to fight or to appease the

    invaders.

The chief councilor/negotiator Qin Gui arranged the murder of Yue Fei (

    ).

1142

    宋國向金國 稱臣納貢 再割中原之地予金

The (Southern) Song by treaty ceded North China down to the Huai River

    and agreed to be a vassal of and paid annual tribute to the Jin.

North China for the 1st time came under non-Chinese rule (4 millions of

    Khitans or Qidans, 6 millions of Rhuzhen or Jurchens, and 35 millions

    of Hans)

1153 (-1214)

Jin moved capitol from Haerbin to Beijing till 1214..

1214

Jin moved capitol from Beijing to Kaifeng.

1190

    朱熹 (1130-1200) 福建漳州 知府 (朱熹 講閩南語)(神農子乃漳州人

        入台10世孫)

1234

    金亡

金亡國後, 皇室完顏家族改姓王/2, 住今山東臨沂, 至今(2008)

    傳至20th 代子孫, 他們也成了漢人和炎黃子孫!

The Mongols extinguished the Jin and ruled the North China heartland for

    45 years, which had already experienced a century (1127-1234) of alien

    (Jin) domination, before they conquered the (Southern) Song in 1279,

The Mongols continued using Beijing’s Mandarin language in the North

    China heartland.

1271: 

    Kublai Khan (忽必烈) established Dadu (Beijing) as his capitol of

    Yuan Empire.  He officially proclaimed the establishment of the Great

    Yuan Empire and placed his grandfather, Genghis Khan as the official

    founder of the empire. Taizu (元太祖) .

1279 (-1368)

    元國  The Yuan State

統治蒙古之族群: (秦漢時期) 匈奴鮮卑 (93AD-234AD),  柔然

    契丹 (遼國) (916-1125),  女真 (金國) (1115-1234),  

    (元國) (1271-1368),   滿人 (女真) () (1644-1911), (獨立) 蒙古

    共和國 (1912-present)

1279:

The Mongols (the Yuan Empire) extinguished the (Southern) Song.

Kublai Khan became the 1st non-Chinese emperor to conquer and rule all

    of China.

The Yuan Empire began reinforcing the Beijing’s Mandarin Chinese

    language throughout the entire China.  

    1292:

    <古今韻會>成書, 作者為宋國進士, 已失傳

    1297:

<古今韻會舉要>成書, 以切韻注漢字音 (中華文明史上最後一本台語

    音字典, 此後漢字切韻只注國語/普通話音)

 1324:

    中原漢語已胡化 197年(1127-1324)!

<中原音韻>成書, 周德清著, 每個漢字注 大都 (北京)!

周德清之書發表後, 南方正統漢語(商漢語)學界譁然, 大罵周德清反

    !!!

此時元曲(北曲) 4大家都是北方(即中原), 其作品都押『大都音』

    北京漢語/國語/普通話, 不像唐詩宋詞押商漢語/河洛漢語/

     洛陽話/閩南語/台語韻

<中原音韻>乃直接證據, 證明中原漢字音 已完成胡化(non-

    sinicization), 商漢語音(台語音)胡化成 胡漢語音(國語/普通話)!

1368 (-1644)

    明國 The Ming State

The Ming Empire extinguished the Yuan State in China, but the Mongols

    Empire survived in Mongolia!.

1421: 朱隸 (朱元璋4th子) 遷都北京, 局部漢化 胡人之都 北京城!

1616:  The Aisingurun clan (愛新覺羅) of the Rhuzhen founded The Great

    Jin (大金)(後金)..

1635:  The Rhuzhen (Jurchens) was renamed Manchu (滿州).

1636:  The Great Jin (the Later Jin) was renamed the Great Qing (大清)

1644 (-1912)

    清國 The Qing State

    女真人(滿州人)繼元國之後, 第二次以漢字北京音 統治全國 268!

The Qing Empire extinguished the Ming Empire.

Kangxi Emperor became the 2nd non-Chinese emperor to conquer and rule

    all of China with the official Mandarin Chinese language..

The Qing Empire reinforced Mandarin Chinese language for additional

    268 years, rendering irreversible the non-sinicization of the Han

    Chinese language!.

1716;

大清帝國 <康熙字典>成書, 42,174 漢字

1912

    中華民國The ROC State

The ROC extinguished the Qing Empire.

.   In early years of the Republic, KMT’s Cantonese members made a move

       trying to use Cantonese as the national language, but Beijing’s Mandarin

       Chinese language won the national language status by one vote! 

    Cantonese language is a hybrid of Han Chinese language and the language

       of the Canton’s native people.

1915

<中華大字典> 中華書局  44,908

1949

    中華人民共和國  The PRC State

CPC founded PRC

KMT/ROC fled China’s mainland to Taiwan.

CPC one-party autocracy (一黨專政) began in China

KMT (GMD) one-party autocracy began in Taiwan

1969

<中文大辭典> 張其昀等(ROC),  49,888

1987

    Multi-party democratic polity began in Taiwan (ROC)

2009

<中文標準交換碼全字庫5.0> 網站  ROC 國家發展委員會  48,027漢字

2014

Medical English (5th year) offered for the most parts by Robert S. Hsu,

    NTU College of Medicine, School of Pharmacy. 

This chronicle is an excerpt from the Medical English lecture handout!

 

 

注:

 

PRC:  People's Republic of China 中華人民共和國

CCP:  Chinese Communist Party (American term) 中國共產黨 (美國人用

    詞)

CPC:  Communist Party of China (PRC's term) 中國共產黨 (PRC人用詞)

KMT:  Komington (ROC's term) 國民黨 (台灣人用詞)

GMD:  Guo Ming Dang (PRC's term) 國民黨 (PRC人用詞)

ROC:  Republic of China 中華民國 (台灣)

 

 

http://www.chinatimes.com/realtimenews/20140506003946-260409