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June 4, 2013 (Tuesday)    Original

January 16, 2015 (Friday)  Updated

 

神農子英                       無師可自通/漢英雙語教學

(Mandarin-English Bilingual Self-Learning)

編著者        許松勇  Robert S. Hsu, Ph.D., R.Ph.    

Copyright © Robert S. Hsu, 2015 All rights reserved  版權所有  請勿翻印

      

湖北/宜蘭      雪山人

         

每個概念 都有 精準而洽當 (precise and felicitous) 的中文字 和英文字 來表達, 本欄協助讀者建立這種 雙語智能, 讓其他老中不如你, 老美也不如你, 使你的英文有 出類拔萃 的機會!  你若有 雙語智能, 很容易出類拔萃!

 

Mandarin Chinese Pinyin Pronunciation with corresponding ㄅㄆㄇㄈ:

 

                         

 b   p   m   f        d    t    n   l       g    k   h        j   q   x     

 

    ㄕ   ㄖ        ㄙ    一    

zh   ch  sh     r         z    c    s      y,i   u    ü

 

                                        

 a   o       e     e     ai   ei   ao   ou   an   en      ang  eng   er

 

Note: The above table will enable English-speaking people, including ABC (American-born Chinese), to learn Mandarin Chinese language (國語/普通話 guo2 yü3 / pu3 tong hua4) on their own.

 

References:
www.dictionary.com (American English) (the world's No.1 online dictionary)

www.Merriam-Webster.com (British English)

www.thefreedictionary.com (American English)

www.nytimes.com     (American English)

News.yahoo.com (American English)

www.chinapost.com.tw (ROC English)

english.people.com.cn (PRC English)

China - A New History (American English, 已故哈佛大學 費正清教授著)

Novelists' writings (including the Story of the stone 紅樓夢, British

   English; Three Kingdoms 三國演義, American English; Six Records of a

   floating Life, 浮生六記, British English)

Many other sources

 

Warning: Occasionally, English written by reporters for the Chinapost or english.people (人民網) is substandard and many non-English-speaking readers may not be able to catch the erroneous sentence; for example, ‘the participants total (vt) 100’ (= amount to)(standard English) was written as ‘the participants total at 100.’(substandard English)  However, it's correct in British English to say 'the participants total (vi) to 100.)

 

After you have learned the following English words, you're able to do 3 things: pronounce them and use them in your speech and writing.  That means you'll own these words for your lifetime!!!,  

 

本文介紹 西方英文媒體常用字

 

 

 

May 2016 - November 27, 2016 (Sunday)

英文媒體曰: PRC之5倍音速飛彈是美國最佳空對空飛彈射程之2倍多 而且新無人機可裝設成隱形機以太空網路為攻擊目標

China's new mach 6 hypersonic missile has over twice the range of  best U.S. air-to-air missile and new drones could create a stealth plane targeting network. Nov. 27. 2016 (Sunday) LA

 

 

英文媒體曰: 歐洲終於醒來看到了(覺醒到有)新絲路 這可是很大---2016年終 新絲路蓬勃發展---

Europe finally wakes up to the new silk road and this could be big. ---. At the end of 2016, silk road development is booming.  In addition to --- new infrastructure throughout Euroasia, the necessary political, economic and financial networks are being established.  11.11.2016 (Friday)

 

 

英文媒體曰:PRC軍事能力 正以驚人速度成長中Report: China's military capabilities are growing at a shocking speed.

 

英文媒體曰: PRC開發500 公里/小時 火車. 領先高鐵科技輸出

China developing 500 km/hr trains to lead export of high-speed rail technology. 9.26.2016 (Monday)

 

英文媒體曰: 下一個大未來: PRC超級電腦主宰地位 提供全球經濟競爭力優勢

Next big future: China supercomputer domination provides a global economic competitiveness advantage.

 

英文媒體曰: PRC加入世界頂尖25個最創 新經濟體

China joins world's top 25 most innovative economies.

 

英文媒體曰: 下一個大未來: PRC開發反潛艇之火箭魚雷混合體武器

China develops a anti-submarine missile-torpedo hybrid weapon.

PRC之火箭魚雷可限制美國潛艇 威力

China's new missile-torpedo may curb U.S. submarine power

 

英文媒體曰: PRC即將發射(注: 已發射)量子衛星 在新太空競賽中領先

China is about to launch an un-hackable quantum satellite and take the lead in a new space race

China launches hack-proof communication satellite.

 

英文媒體曰 : PRC 正開發超音速太空飛機 讓太空梭顯得很原始!

China is developing a hypersonic space plane that makes the space shuttle look primitive.

 

英文媒體曰: PRC科技創新 已成世界主流

China tech innovation goes mainstream finally  as Facebook, Twitter look east for ideas.

 

英文媒體曰: PRC致力於 IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things 企業物聯網) 將主宰全球市場

China IIoT efforts will dominate global market - Economist

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 28, 2015 (Monday)   Los Angeles

 

Words that denote physical or mental pain身或心之痛苦:

Pain, suffering, distress, misery, agony, anguish,  woe, torment, torture

 

 

Words that denote physical or mental pain (I):

pain, pains 

 

Shen huo4 xin zhi tong4 ku3:

身或心之痛苦

shen ti3 zhi tong4 jue2   huo4   jing shen2 zhi chu3 tong4:

身體之痛覺 或精神之楚痛

mental or physical pain, suffering, or distress; pain, suffering, or distress of the mind or body;

 

Pain (peyn):

= a state of physical or mental lack of well-being; a state of physical or mental uneasiness ranging from mild discomfort to acute and unbearable agony; a consequence of being injured or hurt physically or mentally, or of derangement of or lack of equilibrium in the physical or mental functions

 

Example:

Shen ti3 tong4 jue2  ke2 yi3 shi4   quan2 shen xing4   huo4 ju2 bu4 xing4

身體痛覺 可以是 全身性 或局部性

Physical pain or bodily pain may be generalized or localized.

 

Ta jing chang2 tong

他經常痛

He is in constant pain.

 

Yie2 xu3 rou4 ti3 zhi cun2 zai4  nai3 ling4 ren2 lei4 lei4 huai4 zhi tong

也許肉體之存在 乃令人類累壞之痛

Perhaps all physical existence is a weary pain to man.

 

Ta duei4 na4 xie xiou ru4 de5 yian2 ci2   suo3 gan3 dao4 de5 tong4 ku3 

他對那些羞辱的言詞 所感到的痛苦

the pain he had felt at those humiliating words 

 

jiao3 huai2 niu3 shang zhi tong4

腳踝扭傷之痛

the pain of a twisted ankle

 

ta shen pa4 li2 kai ta men5 suo3 dai4 lai2 de5 tong4 ku3

他深怕離開他們所帶來的痛苦

He dreaded the pain of separation from them.

 

ta ing4 duei4 ta men5    de5 xing2 wei2  ling4 wuo2 hen3 tong4 ku3

他應對他們  的行為令我很痛苦

His conduct in regard to them caused me the deepest pain.

  

rang4 ren2 xin fan2 zhi shi4/wu4L

讓人心煩之事/:

pain:

= sg that irks or annoys or otherwise troublesome; sg provokingly displeasing

 

Example:

Ta hen3 rang4 ren2 xin fan2

她很讓人心煩

She is a great pain.

  

 

Gan3 jue2 xin fan2:

感覺心煩:

pain:

= a feeling of annoyance to sg irksome or annoying

 

Example:

Ni3 ling4 wuo3 xin fan2

你令我心煩

You give me a pain.

 

 

Chu3 fa2:

處罰:

pains (pl.)

= punishments, now used chiefly in the phrase, pains and penalties

 

Example:

Tong guo4 xing2 shi4 fan4 zuei4 chu3 fa2 zhi fa3 lu4

通過刑事犯罪處罰之法律

passing acts of pains and penalties

 

you3 ge5 yuan2 ze2: min2 shi4 fa3 ting2 bu4 xu3 jia zhong4 duei4 xing2 shi4fan4 zuei4 zhi chu3 fa2

有個原則 民事法庭不許加重對刑事犯罪之處罰

There was the principle that civil courts may not add to the pains and penalties of crimes.

 

  

Sheng chan3 shi2 zi3 gong shou suo zhi zhen4 tong4:

生產時子宮收縮之陣痛:

pains (pl).:

= the protracted series of the involuntary contractions of uterine musculature

 

Xin ku3 wan2 cheng2 mou3 shi4:

辛苦(完成某事):

pains (pl.):

= effort, care, trouble taken for the accomplishment of sg and is used as either singular archaically or plural in construction.

 

Example:

Ta hua hen3 da4 li4 qi4   yan2 jiou4 shi2 wu4 xi4 jie2

他花很大力氣 研究實務細節

He has taken great pains to study the practical details.

 

Ta fei4 li4 qiang2 diao4   ci3 ci4 zao4 fang3 zhi fei zheng4 zhi4 xing4 zhi2

他費力強調 此次造訪之非政治性質

He was at pains to emphasize the nonpolitical character of this visit.

 

  

Fou3 ze2 chu3 fa2 jia shen:

否則處罰加身:

on pain of/upon pain of/under pain of:

= under penalty or punishment of

(Usage note: each of these prepositional phrases is followed by word or phrase to indicate the thing specified is invoked as a threat that will be fulfilled.

 

Example:

Ta bei4 gao4 zhi   bu4 zhun3 li2 jing4    fou3 ze2 sang4 ming4

他被告知 不准離境 否則 喪命

He   was told not to leave the country on pain of death.

 

Xiang4 zheng4 fu3 bu4 men2 zhu2 guan3 shi ya  yao4 zhu2 guan3 yong4 ta de5 ren2   fou3 ze2 zhu2 guan3 zai4 guo2 huei4 jiang zao yu4 fan3 duei4

向政府部門主管施壓 要主管任用他的人 否則主管在國會將遭遇反對

Bringing pressure upon the commissioner to appoint to office his favorites under pain of meeting his opposition in Congress.

 

= or is sg to be forfeited (archaic or obsolete)

 

Example:

Mei3 ge5 ren2 bi4 xu huei2 jia   fou3 ze2 sang4 ming4

每個人必須回家 否則喪命

That every one upon pain of life should return to their houses

 

= or is an offense/crime with which one will be charged

 

Example:

Mei3 ge5 ren2 bi4 xu fou3 ze2 yi3 fan3 pan4 lun4

每個人必須開店 否則以反叛論

That every one should open their shop under pain of rebellion.

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy is in pain.

Sg is a pain to sy.

Sg causes sy a great pain.

a pain of sg                       

Sy feels pain at sg.

Sy is a great pain.

pains and penalties of crimes

Sy takes pains to do sg.

Sy is at pains to do sg.

Sy should do sg on pain of/upon pain of/under pain of  sg threatening.

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 8, 2015 (Tuesday)  original

 

精神上之痛苦

Mental pain, mental suffering, mental distress; pain of mind, suffering of mind, distress of mind

 

In addition to ‘sadness, sorrow, grief, and regret’, the following words also express ‘mental suffering or pain’: 

anguish,  dole, dolor,  heartache, woe.

 

 

anguish (n) (ANG-gwish)

= 悲痛 (n) an excruciating or torturing grief or dread

 

Example:

Wu2 fa3 ren3 shou4 zhi bei tong4

無法忍受之悲痛

the insufferable anguish

 

tong4 ku3 de5 jian jiao4

痛苦的尖叫

shrieks of anguish (shriek = a shrill, frantic cry)

 

bei shang zhi tong4; bei4 ta3 bai4 zhi tong4

悲傷之痛; 被打敗之痛

the anguish of grief; the anguish of defeat

 

ta nei4 xin chong man3 zhe5 tong4 ku3

她內心充滿著痛苦

Anguish filled her heart.

 

= 悲痛 (n) deep sadness especially for the loss of sy or sg loved

 

Example:

Wuo3 diu le5 qi4 che de5 tong4 ku3   fei yü3 yian2 suo3 neng2 xing2 rong2

我丟了汽車的痛苦  非語言所能形容

Words can’t express my anguish at losing my car.

 

= 極度痛苦(n) extreme pain, distress, or anxiety

 

Example:

Ta chang2 dao4 le5 jie2 hun 10 nian2 zhi hou4 li2 hun zhi tong4

他嘗到了結婚10年之後離婚之痛

He experienced the anguish of divorce after 10 years of marriage.

 

Ta men2 xin tong4 de5 wang4 zhe5 da4 huo3 yian2 shao de5 fang2 zi5

他們心 痛地望著 大火 延燒房子ˊ

They watched in anguish as fire spread through the house.

 

= 身體 或心理之極度痛苦extreme pain either of body or mind (usually used in singular); a state of great suffering or body or mind

 

Example:

Nei4 xin zuei4 jian ruei4 zhi tong shi4 zi4 ze2

內心最尖銳之痛是自責

The keenest of all anguish, self-reproach

 

Zuo4 wei2 yi wei4 xin lao3 shi   ta jue2 ding4 shang4 bao4 xue2 sheng zuo4 bi4 zhi shi4   nei4 xin que4 shi2 tong4 ku3

作為一位新老師   決定上報學生作弊之事 內心確實 痛苦

As a new teacher, she was in real anguish over the decision to report the cheating.

 

Sentence pattern:

the anguish of/at/over sg

Sy to do sg in anguish.

Sy to be in anguish over sg

Sy to feel anguish of/at/over sg

Anguish fills/strikes one’s heart

 

 

 

dole (n) (dohl)

= 悲痛 (n) (archaic) grief or mourning; grief or sorrow

 

Example:

shen ru4 de5 zhi2 wen4   tan4 suo3 wu2 jin4 de5 bei tong4

深入的質問 探索無盡的悲痛

Deep questioning probes to endless dole. (= grief or sorrow)

 

= (以哭/泣表達) 悲痛 (n) woe given vent to weeping, moaning, wailing; lamentation (= given vent to = being expressed by)

 

Example:

xian4 ru4   wu2 yi3 wei4 jie4 de5, ling4 ren2 sheng wei4 de5 bei tong4

陷入 無以慰藉的, 令人生畏的悲痛

Giving way to inconsolable, fearful doles

 

sentence pattern:

inconsolable dole

endless dole

 

 

 

dolor (n) (DOH-ler)悲痛 (n)

= (literary)(poetic term) mental suffering or anguish; sorrow; grief; a state of great sorrow, grief, misery, or distress; dolefulness; deep

sadness especially for the loss of sy or sg loved

 

Example:

ta ai shang de5 shi jü4   yuan2 yü2 li4 jing shu4 yue4 de5 shen du4 bei tong

她哀傷的詩句  源於歷經數月的深度悲痛

Her sad poems grew put of a deep dolor that lasted for months.

 

ta wu2 fa3 cheng2 shou4 ai shang er2 pao3 kai

她無法承受哀傷而跑開

Her dolor was so unbearable that she ran away.

 

sentence pattern:

one's dolor; her deep dolor

 

 

 

heartache (n) (HAHRT-eyk) 悲痛 (n)

= emotional pain or distress; sorrow; grief; anguish

= intense anguish or mental suffering

= an all-embracing hidden sorrow springing from loss of hope, love.

 

Example:

zhan4 zheng zhi shang tong4

戰爭之傷痛

the heartache of war

 

ta zai4 xü3 duo nian2 de5 pin2 qiong2 yü3 kun4 ku3 zhi hou4   ming2 li4 shuang shou

他在許多年的貧窮與困苦之後, 名利雙收

He reaches fame and success after many years of poverty and heartache. (success = attainment of wealth)

 

mei2 you3 huei2 bao4 zhi ai4 qing2 de5 tong4 ku3

沒有回報之愛情的痛苦

the heartache of unrequited love (unrequited = unreturned)

 

sentence pattern:

the heartache of sg undesirable

 

 

 

woe (n) (woh)

= 悲痛 (n) deep sadness especially for the loss of sy or sg loved

 

Example;

其夫往生後,  她 悲痛不止

the incessant woe has haunted her since the death of her husband

 

= 悲痛 (n)與苦難 (n) (literary) intense grief or misery; expressive of grief, regret, or distress; a miserable or sorrowful state; deep suffering from misfortune, affliction or grief; grievous distress, affliction, or trouble.

 

Example:

zheng3 ge5 shi2 dai4 zhi ku3

整個時代之苦難

a whole age of woe

 

ren2 lei4 zhi ku3 he2 le4

人類之苦和樂

human weal and woe (weal = prosperity, happiness, wellbeing)

 

ren2 lei4 zhi ku3 he2 le4

人類之苦或樂

bliss or woe of human souls

 

ta suo3 gan3 jue2 dao4 de5 ku3 nan4 xuan2 wo zhong

他所感覺到的苦難漩渦

amid the whirl of woe he feels

 

gong4 xiang3 ta men2 mao4 xian3 zhi ku3 he2 le4

共享他們冒險之苦和樂

to share their adventures in weal and woe

 

ni3 ruo4 chi2 dao4   ni3 you3 ku3 tou2 chi

你若遲到 你有苦頭吃!

Woe betide you if you arrive late.  (= Misfortune will befall someone; to betide = to befall = to happen to)

 

ni3 men2 bi4 xü zun zhong4 tiao2 yue   wei2 bei4 zhe3 you2 ku3 tou2 chi

你們必須尊重條約 違背者有苦頭吃

You must respect treaties, then: woe to those who do not respect treaties.

 

= 苦難 (n)  (pl.) grievous distress, affliction, misfortune; calamity trouble; deep or inconsolable misery induced by grief or anguish

 

Example:

jing ji4 shang4 zhi ku3 nan4

經濟上的苦難

Economic woes

 

shi4 qü jiao tong zhi ku3 nan4   wen2 ming2

市區交通之苦難 聞名

The city’s traffic woes are well known.  

 

ta chi hen3 duo ku3 tou2   qi2 yi shi4 die2 jiao

她 吃很多苦頭 其 一是跌跤

She suffered a fall, among other woes. (= an affliction)

 

sentence pattern:

human weal and woe

sy to share sg in weal and woe

woe to those who lie

sy to suffer many woes

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 4, 2015 (Friday)

 

Words denoting  mental suffering or distress of mind for loss of sy or sg loved  (為失去所愛之人/物而承受) 精神上之痛苦:

 

悲傷 (n):  

sadness, sorrow, grief, regret

= expression of a feeling associated with loss,

   bereavement, sympathy for another’s suffering 

 

sadness (n) 悲傷 (n):

    = the state of being sad

= an expression of sorrow; a cause of sorrow; a feeling of

   sorrow or unhappiness

= sorrowfulness, gloominess; mournfulness 

= expressive of grief or unhappiness

 

Example:

Ta yi4 shi4 dao4 shen shen de5 bei shang,  dan4 hai2 bu2

 shi4 shang tong4   

意識到深深的悲傷, 但還不是傷痛

He was conscious of a profound sadness which was not

 grief.

 

Ta de5 yian3 jing he2 sheng yin    dai4 zhe5 bei shang

他的眼睛和聲音  帶者悲傷

There was sadness in her eyes, in her voice.

 

Ta bei shang de5 hue2 da2

她悲傷地 回答

She answered with sadness.

 

Ta duei4 ce3 yi fa xiang4  gan3 dao4 bei shang

她對此一發現 感到悲傷

She felt sadness at the discovery.

 

Ta you3 bei4  bei shang zheng fu2 de5 wuei2 xian3

有被 悲傷征服的危險

Sadness threatened to overwhelm him.

 

sorrow (n) 悲傷 (n):

= sadness or grief; a cause of sadness or grief; a display of

   sadness or grief; a feeling of sadness or grief; an

   expression of sadness or grief; deep sadness

 

Example:

Wuo3 duei4 you3 ren2 de5 wang3 sheng gan3 dao4 bei

 shang

我對友人的往生感到悲傷

I felt sorrow at the death of my friend.

 

Ta liang3 bu4 neng2 jie2 huen   hen3 bei shang

他兩不能結婚 很悲傷

To their great sorrow, they could not marry. (= deep

 sadness, distress, or regre)

 

Chong man3 zhe5 huan le4 yu3 bei shang de5 yi4 sheng

充滿著歡樂與悲傷的一

a life filled with joys and sorrows

 

mu4 du3 ta de5 wang3 sheng yin2 qi3 guang3 fan4 de5 bei

 shang

目睹他的往生引起廣泛的悲傷

to witness the widespread sorrow his death has aroused

 

grief (n) 悲傷 (n):

= deep sadness for a death; poignant or extended sorrow

 

Example:

Nu3 er2 wang3 sheng   ta hen3 bei shang

女兒往生  她很悲傷

Her deep grief at her daughter’s death

 

Bei shang zheng fu2 le5 ta

悲傷征服了他

He was overcome with grief.

 

Uwo3 men2 yi4 sheng de5 huan le4 yu3 bei shang

生的歡樂和悲傷

Joys and griefs of our lives

 

Ta li2 kai luo2 ma3 jiao4 tang2   ta mu3 qin zhi4 wuei2

 bei shang

他離開羅馬教堂 他母親 至為悲傷

To the grief of his mother, he left the Roman Church.

 

Yi ling2 jiou2 jiou3 nian2 qi yue4   ta yin bei fen4 wang3

 sheng

0九九年七   他因悲憤 往生

He died of anger and grief in July 1099.

 

Ta dong4 bu2 dong4 jiou4   bei fen4 guo4 du4

他動不動就 悲憤過度

He is prone to the excess of wrath and grief.

 

Yi zhen4 bei shang tuen shi4 le5 ta

一陣悲傷吞噬了他

A wave of grief engulfed him.

 

Ta luo4 dan shi2 de5 kong3 ju4 yu3 bei shang

他落單時的恐懼與悲傷

his fear and grief at being left alone 

Note: other definitions

 

regret (n) (帶有懊悔的) 悲傷 (n):

= sorrow aroused by circumstances beyond control; grief

   or pain tinged with disappointment, dissatisfaction,

   remorse, and the like.

    = a sense of repentance or sorrow for some wrong done

      or an unfulfilled ambition

 

Example:

Ta man3 huai2 ling4 yi zhong3 bei shang   ta ren4 ding4

 shi4   dai4 you3 ao4 huei3 de5 bei shang

他滿懷另一種悲傷 他認定是 帶有懊悔的悲傷

A different kind of sorrow filled him, one he recognized as

 regret.

 

Ni3 xuan3 ta bu4 xuan3 wuo3   yie3 ling4 wuo3 shang xin

你選他不選我 也令我傷心

    I also regret you choosing him over me.

 

Yi jiou3 ling2 liou4 nian2 san yue4   ta zai4 yi pian4 bei

shang fen wuei2 zhong wang3 shen

一九0六年三月 他在 片悲傷氛圍中 往生

    He died amidst general regret in March 1906.

 

Ta sheng si3 bu4 ming2   wuo3 he2 zheng3 ge5 lu4 jun

 hen3 bei shang

他生死不明 我和整個 陸軍 很悲傷

To the great regret of myself and the whole army, it is

 uncertain whether he is alive or not.

 

Wang2 zi3 Andrew shuo, “ta sheng bing4   wuo3 gan3

 dao4 hen3 bei shang.”

王子 Andrew , “他生病 我感到很悲傷.”

    “I feel much regret for her illness,” said Prince Andrew.

 

Ta dai4 zhe5 s s de5 bei shang   nong suei4 shou3 zhong

 yu4 shi2

他帶著絲絲的悲傷  弄碎手中玉石

     With some regret, he crushed the gem in his hand.

 

  

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

June 8, 2015 (Monday)  Taipei

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (11 of 11):

to shun (vt)(shuhn): Definition

故意避開(某人/某物/某地)

 

to shun (vt)(shuhn): 故意避開(某人/某物/某地) to avoid deliberately and habitually (a person, place, object); to keep away from; to shy away from

 

Sentence pattern:

to shun sy/to shun sg/to shun a place

 

Example:

He has tried hard to shun personal publicity and keep a low profile as much as possible.

 

Shunning Beijing's infrastructure bank was a mistake for the U.S.

After the trial he was shunned by friends and family alike.

After his divorce he found himself being shunned by many of his former friends.

He shuns parties and social events.

He lived alone, shunning all community activities.

He is able to shun temptation.

No man can shun his destiny.

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 16, 2015 (Friday) Los Angeles

 

Improve your Mandarin and English by picking the best (precise) word(s) for a specific scenario:

推卸(義務予他人)

to shirk a duty upon the others

tuei xie4 (yi4 wu4 yü2 ta ren2)

 

(抽煙)/ (喝酒)/ (吃肉)/ (跳舞)/ (穿西裝打領帶)

to eschew smoking/alcoholic beverage/flesh/dancing/suit and tie

bu4 chou yan/bu4 he jiou3/bu4 chi rou4/bu4 tiao wu3/bu4 chuan xi zhuang da2 ling3 dai4

 

逃避(警察/追殺者)

to evade the police

to elude the pursuer

tao2 bi4 jing3 cha/zhuei sha zhe3

 

()

to evade taxes

tao2 shuei4

 

(法律)/逃避(法律)

to evade laws

to elude laws

duo2 fa3 lü4/tao2 bi4 fa3 lü4

 

逃避(兵役)

to evade draft

to dodge the service

tao2 bi4 bing yi4

 

閃避(子彈/刀劍)

to dodge a bullet/knife/sword

to duck a bullet/knife/sword

shan3 bi4 zi3 dan4/dao jian4

 

閃避(某人 不見面)

to dodge someone

to duck someone

shan3 bi4 mou3 ren2

 

閃進巷子/閃到柱子背後

to dodge into an alley/to dodge behind a pillar

to duck into an alley/to duck behind a pillar

shan3 jin4 xiang4 zi/shan3 dao4 zhu4 zi bei4 hou4

 

閃躲飛來的球

to dodge a ball

to sidestep a ball

shan3 duo3 fei lai2 de qiou2

 

擋掉(一擊/一拳/刀劍)

to parry a punch, a blow, a knife, a sword

to fence a punch, a blow, a knife, a sword

dang3 diao4 yi ji2/yi quan2/dao jian4

 

技巧地迴避直接回答問題

to evade a question

to parry a question

to fence a question

to fence (vi) with someone

to fence (vi) on an issue

ji4 qiao3 di huei2 bi4 zhi2 jie huei2 da2 wen4 ti2

 

裝病不做事

to malinger to avoid doing something

zhuang bing4 bu4 zuo4 shi4

 

我不懂/你不懂/他不懂

This evades me/you/him.

This eludes me/you/him.

Wo3 bu4 dong3 zhe4/ni3 bu4 dong3 zhe4/ta bu4 dong3 zhe4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 16, 2015 (Friday) Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (10 of 10):

to malinger (muh-LING-ger)(vi): definition

()病推卸(工作/責任)(vi)

cheng (zhuang) bing4 tuei xie4 gong zuo4/ze2 ren4

 

to malinger (muh-LING-ger)(vi): ()病推掉(工作/責任) to pretend or exaggerate illness or incapacity so as to avoid work or to shirk one’s duty; to shirk one’s duty by pretense of illness, weakness, or incapacity

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy malingers.

 

Example:

裝病不做事

to malinger out of chores

to malinger to avoid doing work

zhuang bing4 bu4 zuo4 shi4

 

裝病 待在家裡不上學

to malinger in order to stay home from school

zhuang bing4  dai4 zai4 jia li3 bu4 shang4 xue2

 

裝咳嗽 希望免盡 陪審員義務

to malinger with a fake cough in hopes of being excused from jury duty

zhuang ke2 sou4   xi wang4 mian3 jin4  pei2 shen3 yuan2 yi4 wu4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 15, 2015 (Thursday) Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (9 of 10):

to fence (fens)(vt, vi): Definition

擋掉(襲擊, 問題, 攻擊者)(vt); 迴避直接回答問題(vi); 用劍攻防 (vi)


to fence (vt): 擋掉(襲擊, 問題, 攻擊者) to ward off, to keep out; to parry, to fend off, to turn aside (blows, questions, attackers)

to fence (vi): 避免直接回答問題to strive to avoid giving direct answers; figuratively to avoid an issue or to ward sg off as embarrassing questions; 用劍攻防to practice the art of fencing such as thrusting, guarding, parrying

fencing (n): 迴避直接回答問題 the avoidance of direct answers, evasiveness, or a parrying of arguments: 劍術之攻防 the practice of fighting with swords 

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy fences questions.

Sy fences with sy else..

Sy fences daily.

 

Example:

阻擋 不受歡迎移民 之法律

laws that fence out undesirable immigrants (= to ward off, to repel)

dang3 diao4  

zu2 dang3  bu2 shou4 huan ying2 yi2 min2   zhi fa3 lü4

 

主席 擋掉彆扭的問題

The chairman fences awkward questions. (= to turn aside, to evade, to parry)

Zhu3 xi2   dang3 diao4 bie4 niu3 de wen4 ti2

 

花很多時間在作證席上  擋提問

spent much time in fencing (vi) on the witness stand (= to baffle inquiry by equivocation or figuratively to avoid an issue or to ward sg off as embarrassing questions)

hua hen3 duo shi2 jian zai4 zuo4 zheng4 xi2 shang4   dang3 ti2 wen4

 

主席呈現  迴避直接回答媒體問題 的新才華

The president showed a new capability for fencing (vi) with the press. 

Zhu3 xi2 cheng2 xian4   huei2 bi4 zhi2 jie huei2 da2 mei2 ti3 wen4 ti2   de xin chai2 hua2

 

他每天和一位高明的劍士  擊劍

He fences (vi) daily with a skilled foilsman. (= to practice the art of fencing)

Ta mei3 tian he2 yi wei4 gao ming2 de jian4 shi4   ji2 jian4

 

政界 迴避直接回答重要議題

political fencing (n) on important issues (= avoidance of direct answers to issues)

zheng4 jie4   huei2 bi4 zhi2 jie huei2 da2 zhong yao4 yi4 ti2

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 14, 2015 (Wednesday)  Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (8 of 10):

to parry (PAR-ee)(vt, vi): Definition

擋掉 (劍擊, etc.); 擋掉 (問題)

 

to parry (vt, vi): 擋掉 (劍擊, etc.) to ward off, to turn aside, to deflect a thrust, stroke, weapon, blow by means of a parry; to avert; (以機智回答) 擋掉 (問題) to evade or to dodge a question by an adroit answer

parry (n): a defensive action made with a blade or glove to deflect a thrust or blow from an opponent

Note: The word carries a notion of direct contact and deflection of the attack

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy parries a thrust, blow, weapon, etc.

Sy parries a question.

Sy thrusts and parries (vi).

 

Example:

這把刀 曾經 擋掉 賣國賊的濫劍攻擊

The knife had parried the blow from the traitor’s useless sword.

Zhe4 ba3 dao   ceng2 jing   dang3 diao4   mai4 guo2 zei2 de lan4 jian4 gong ji2

 

他是位 新品種的將軍 有能力 擋掉 教科書上沒說過的 一類敵人

He is a new species of general, capable of parrying a kind of enemy that was not described in the textbooks.

Ta shi4 wei4   xin pin2 zhong2 de jiang jun   you3 neng2 li4  dang3 diao4   jiao4 ke shu shang4 mei2 shuo guo4 de yi lei4 di2 ren2

 

Modoc 印地安人 (in Oregon/north California)戰鬥群 擋掉 聯邦 部隊一波波的攻擊

The Modoc bands parried thrust after thrust of the Federal troops.

Modoc in4 di4 an ren2 zhan4 dou4 qun2  dang3 diao4  lian2 bang bu4 duei4 yi po po de gong ji2

 

她機智地 擋掉 記者們的提問

She cleverly parried the reporters’ questions.

Ta ji zhi4 di  dang3 diao4   ji4 zhe3 men2 de ti2 wen4

 

我花了整個下午 和一群所謂 保險專家們 作攻防

I spent the entire afternoon thrusting (vi) and parrying (vi) with a committee of so-called experts in the field of insurance.

Wo3 hua le zheng3 ge xia4 wu3   he2 yi qun2 suo3 wei4   bao2 xian3 zhuan jia men2  zuo4 gong fang2

 

辯論之  攻防 (= 衝刺與抵擋)

the thrust and parry (n) in a debate

bian4 lun4 zhi   gong fang2 (= chong ci4 yü3 di2 dang3)

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 13, 2015 (Tuesday) Los Angeles  

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (7 of  10):

to sidestep (SAHYD-step)(vt, vi): Definition

(突然)閃避(某物)(vt,vi); 迴避(做決定/問題)

 

to sidestep (vt, vi): (突然)閃避(某物) to step suddenly aside from or out of the way of sg; 迴避(做決定/問題) to avoid or evade making a decision, meeting an issue, taking a stand, or the like

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy sidesteps sg.

Sy sidesteps (vi).

 

Example:

閃避一拳

to sidestep a blow (= to dodge/to duck a blow)

shan3 bi4 yi quan2

 

迴避議題/責任/記者提問/法規 

to sidestep issues/responsibility/reporters’ question/regulations

huei2 bi4 yi4 ti2/ze2 ren4/ji4 zhe3 ti2 wen4/fa3 guei

 

吃驚的 旁觀者 閃避飛來的球

The startled spectator sidestepped (vi) away from the oncoming ball. (= to step suddenly aside)

Chi jing de  pang2 guan zhe3   shan3 bi4 fei lai2 de qiou2

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 12, 2015 (Monday) Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (6 of 10):

to duck (duhk)(vt, vi): Definition

(低頭/低身) 閃躲(拳擊etc.); 迴避(工作); 逃避 (責任); (突然/快速)(/); 閃躲(某人)

(Di tou2/di shen) shan2 duo3 (quan2 ji2 etc.); huei2 bi4 (gong zuo4) ; tao2 bi4 (ze2 ren4) ; (tu2 ran2/kuai4 shu4) di (tou2/shen); shan2 duo3 (mou3 ren2)

 

to duck (vt): (低頭/低身) 閃躲(拳擊etc.) to avoid, to evade a blow by or as if by bobbing down the head or suddenly stooping out of the way; 迴避(工作) to avoid, to evade an unpleasant task, etc.; 逃避 (責任) (informal) to escape a duty, etc.

to duck (vt, vi): (突然/快速)(/) to lower (the head/body) suddenly or quickly; 閃躲(某人) (informal) to escape or to escape from a person

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy ducks sg.

Sy ducks sy else.

Sy ducks into/out of sg.

 

Example:

閃躲一記 重右拳

to duck a hard right (= to sidestep purposefully; note: ‘to duck a blow’ is close to ‘to sidestep a blow’ but may be more purposeful.)

shan2 duo3 yi ji4  zhong4 you4 quan2

 

逃避問題/責任/責難/承諾

to duck a question, duty, responsibility, blame, commitment

tao2 bi4 wen4 ti2/ze2 ren4/ze2 nan4/cheng2 nuo4

 

大多數參議員 迴避該問題

Most of the Senate wanted to duck the issue.

Da4 duo shu4 can yi4 yuan2   xiang3 huei2 bi4 gai wen4 ti2

 

他們 彼此閃躲 達數月之久

They have been ducking each other for months.

Ta men2  bi2 ci3 shan2 duo3   da2 shu4 yue4 zhi jiou3

 

教宗 迴避與達賴 喇嘛 會面

Francis ducks meeting with Dalai Lama; he doesn’t want to upset the possibility of closer relations with the PRC. (Agence France Press, December 12, 2014)

Jiao4 zong  huei2 bi4  yü3  Dalai Lama   huei4 mian4

 

他在講台上 各位鞠躬 然後奔下台階

She ducked her head to everyone on the platform, and ran down the steps. (= to lower the head or body/to bow)

Ta zai4 jiang3 tai2 shang4   xiang4 ge4 wei4  jü2 gong   ran2 hou4 ben xia4 tai2 jie

 

在他們看到我們之前 我們最好 閃躲到柱子後

We’d better duck (vi) behind a pillar before they see us. (= to move suddenly aside or to and fro to avoid sg)

Zai4 ta men2 kan4 dao4 wo3 men2 zhi qian2   wo3 men2 zuei4 hao3  shan2 duo3 dao4 zhu4 zi hou4

 

一看到警察 閃過屋角 閃進巷子裡

At sight of the officer, he ducked (vi) around the corner and into an alley. (= to move quickly and often surreptitiously as to escape danger or observation/to disappear suddenly)

Yi kan4 dao4 jing3 cha2   ta shan3 guo4 wu jiao3  shan3 jin4 xiang4 zi3 li3

 

()逃出 教室

to duck out of the class

(shan3) tao2 chu  jiao4 shi4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 10, 2015 (Saturday)  Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (5 of 10):

to dodge (doj)(vt, vi): Definition

(突然) 閃避 (某物) (vt, vi); 迴避(問題/責任)(vt, vi); 閃避(他人) (vt); 敷衍 (vi)

 

to dodge (vt): (突然) 閃避 (某物) to avoid, to evade, to elude, to duck by a sudden shift of position or by moving suddenly or quickly in an unexpected direction; 迴避(問題/責任) to evade (questions, responsibilities, etc.) by strategy, cleverness, or trickery; 閃避(他人) to avoid an encounter with by suddenly turning aside 

to dodge (vi): (突然) 閃避 (某物) to move aside or change position suddenly as to avoid a blow or get behind sg; 迴避(問題/責任) to evade (questions, responsibilities, etc.) by strategy, cleverness, or trickery; 敷衍  to minimize a presentation of facts, etc. 

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy dodges sg.

Sy dodges sy else.

Sy dodges.

 

Example:

閃避一連串子彈

to dodge a hail of bullets (= to evade by repeated shift of position)

shan3 bi4 yi lian2 chuan4 zi3 dan4

 

我抬頭 剛好來得及 閃避 4th樓公寓掉下的窗架

I looked up just in time to dodge a window frame falling from a fourth-story apartment.

Wo3 tai2 tou2  gang hao3  lai2 de2 ji2  shan3 bi4  cong2 si4 lou2 gong yü4 diao4 xia4 de chuang jia4

 

閃避第一拳 挨了第二拳

He dodged the first punch and was hit by the second.

Ta shan3 duo3 di4 yi quan2  ai le di4 er4 quan2

 

她指責他迴避做父母之責任

She accused him of dodging his responsibilities as a parent.

Ta zhi3 ze2 ta huei2 bi4 zuo4 fu4 mu3 zhi ze2 ren4

 

被直接質問時, 迴避問題

When asked a direct question, he dodges (vi).

Bei4 zhi2 jie zhi2 wen4 shi2  ta huei2 bi4 men4 ti2

 

這些年輕男人出國 逃避兵役

Those young men dodged the draft by leaving the country (= to evade a responsibility, etc.)

Zhe4 xie nian2 qing nan2 ren2 chu guo2 tao2 bi4 bing yi4

 

他們從後門離去 閃躲掉記者們

They managed to dodge the reporters by leaving through the back exit.

Ta men2 cong2 hou4 men2 li2 qüduo3 diao4 ji4 zhe3 men2

 

在人群中 閃避 他

She dodged him in the crowd. (= to avoid an encounter with by suddenly turning aside)

Zai4 ren2 qun2 zhong  ta bi4 kai ta

 

閃躲到門後

He dodged (vi) behind the door. (= to make a sudden movement in a new direction)

Ta shan3 duo3 dao4 men2 hou4

 

他在人群中 閃進閃出

He dodged (vi) in and out among the crowd.

Ta zai4 ren2 qun2 zhong shan3 jin4 shan3 chu

 

絕不敷衍 絕不求助於索然無味的一般做法

He never dodges (vi), never seeks refuge in platitudinous generalities. (= to minimize a presentation of sg)

Ta jue2 bu4 fu yan3  jue2 bu4yi3 yi ban zuo4fa3 hun4 hun4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 8, 2015 (Thursday)  Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (4 of 10):

to elude (ih-LOOD)(vt): Definition

逃脫(某人追捕); 迴避(責任); 使人困惑不解

Tao2 tuo (mou3 ren2 zhuei bu3); huei2 bi4 (ze2 ren4); shi3 ren2 kun4 huo4 bu4 jie3

 

to elude (vt): 逃脫(某人追捕) to escape, to evade pursuit by speed, cleverness, trickery, dexterity, craft; 迴避(責任) to avoid fulfillment of an obligation; 使人困惑不解to escape the understanding by/to baffle

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy eludes sy else.

Sy eludes sg.

Sg eludes sy.

 

Example:

殺手逃過警察

The killer was able to elude the police.

Sha shou3 tao2 guo4 jing3 cha2

 

他裝可憐 迴避法律

He eludes law by piteous looks aloft. (= to get around law)

Ta juang ke3 lian2  huei2 bi4 fa3 lü4

 

他們逃避責任

They’re eluding their responsibilities.

Ta men2 tao2 bi4 ze2 ren4

 

我不懂這答案

The answer eludes me. (= to escape the understanding, perception, or appreciation of)

Wo3 bu4 dong3 zhe4 da2 an4

 

病因 持續困惑 研究人員

The cause of the disease continued to elude researchers.

Bing4 yin che2 xü4 kun4 huo4 yan2 jiou4 ren2 yan2

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 5, 2015 (Monday)  Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (3 of 10): 

to evade (ih-VEYD)(vt): Definition

逃脫(他人追 捕); 避免(直接回答問題); 繞過, 迴避 (法律/義務)

Tao2 tuo (ta ren2 zhuei gan3); bi4 mian3 (huei2 da2 wen4 ti2); rao4 guo4, huei2 bi4 (fa3 lü4/yi4 wu4)

 

to evade (vt): 逃脫(他人追趕) to escape, to escape from pursuit by cleverness, trickery, or maneuver; 避免(直接回答問題)(vt, vi) to avoid answering directly (a question); 繞過, 迴避 (法律/義務) to get around (a law, duty, etc.), to shirk, to dodge;

 

Sentence pattern:  

Sy evades sy else (= to escape sy/to escape from sy)

Sy evades sg.

Sg evades sy (= to baffle)

 

Example:

罪犯 躲過 警察

The criminals have managed to evade the police. (= to escape from)

Zhuei4 fan4   duo3 guo4 jing3 cha2

 

密室和秘密出口是用來躲避警察

The secret rooms and exits are used to evade the police.

Mi4 shi4 han4 mi4 mi4 chu kou3  shi4 yong4 ;lai2  duo3 bi4 jing3 cha2

 

逃避義務

to evade an obligation (= to avoid fulfilling sg, to avoid fulfillment of a responsibility)

tao2 bi4 yi4 wu4

 

躲法律/躲法規

to evade laws/to evade rules (= to get around by trickery, by craft, by slyness)

duo2 fa3 lü4/duo2 fa3 guei

 

一位善於逃避 直接回答難題的政客

a politician skilled at evading difficult questions

yi wei4 shan4 yü2 tao2 bi4 nan2 ti2 de zheng4 ke4

 

我怕 戰時逃避兵役的男人

I have a horror of the man who evaded the service during the war. (= to manage to avoid

Wo3 pa4  zhan4 shi2  tao2 bi4 bing yi4 de nan2 ren2

 

有些人 利用法律漏洞  逃稅

Some people use every loophole in the law to evade paying taxes or to evade taxes.

You3 xie ren2  li4 yong4 fa3 lü4 lou4 dong4   tao2 shuei4

 

我不懂這答案

The solution evaded me. (= to elude, to escape understanding by sy)

Wo3 bu4 dong3 zhe4 da2 an4

 

智慧在於 學會何時躲避, 何時預防, 何時面對(當面抗拒)

Wisdom consists in learning when to evade (vi), when to stave off (vi), and when to oppose head on (vi). (= to take refuge in evasion/to use craft or stratagem in escape or avoidance/to avoid facing up to sg/to elude by dexterity)

Zhi4 huei4 zai4 yü2  xue2 huei4 he2 shi2 duo3 bi4,  he2 shi2 yü4 fang2he2 shi2 mian4 duei4 (dang mian4 kang4 jü4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

January 2, 2015 (Friday)  Los Angeles

 

Words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (2 of 10):

to shirk (shurk)(vt, vi): Definition

(因懶惰/懦弱) 迴避 (義務/責任)(vt, vi); 迴避 (見面); 推卸/推諉(責任予他人)

(In lan3 duo4/nuo4 ruo4)   huei2 bi4  (yi4 wu4/ze2 ren4);  huei2 bi4 (jian4 mian4); tuei xie4/tuei wei2 (ze2 ren4 yü2 ta ren2)

 

to shirk (vt): (因懶惰/懦弱) 迴避 (義務/責任)(vt, vi) to avoid, to evade the performance of an obligation because of laziness,  lack of courage, fear, cowardice, or distaste; 迴避 (見面) to evade, to dodge meeting sy; 推卸/(責任予他人) shift (a responsibility, etc. ) elsewhere

to shirk (vi): to go stealthily, to sneak; to withdraw because of lack of courage; to avoid, to evade the performance of an obligation because of laziness,  lack of courage, fear, or distaste;.

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy shirks sg

Sy shirks doing sg

Sy shirks from sg.

Sy shirks from doing sg.

 

Example:

那是我的責任  推卸

That is my duty and I shall not shirk it.

Na4 shi4 wuo3 de ze2 ren4   wo3 bu4 tuei xie4

 

若他能把工作推給別人  他會(這樣做)

If he could shirk off the work upon the others he would. (= to shift the responsibility elsewhere)

Ruo4 ta neng2 ba3 gong zuo4 tuei gei3 bie2 ren2   ta huei4 (zhe4 yang4 zuo4)

 

他從不推卸責任

He never shirked (vi) from doing his duty.

Ta cong2 bu4   tuei xie4 ze2 ren4

 

昨天在人群裡  我避開他的 注視

I shirked his gaze in the crowd yesterday. (= to evade meeting sy)

Zuo2 tian zai4 ren2 qun2 li3   wo3 bi4 kai ta de zhu4 shi4

 

迴避(避不)(vt)見面

to escape meeting sy

to shirk meeting sy

to evade meeting sy

to dodge meeting sy

to duck meeting sy 

huei2 bi4 (bi4 bu4) jian4 mian4

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 29, 2014 (Monday)  Los Angeles

 

Ten words meaning ‘to avoid’ in various contexts (1 of 10):

to eschew (es-CHOO)(vt): Definition

(基於道德或實務考量)完全迴避 (某事/)

(ji yü2 dao4 de2  huo4 shi2 wu4 kao3 liang2) wan2 quan2 huei2 bi4 (mou3 shi4/wu4)

 

to eschew (vt): (基於道德或實務考量)完全迴避 (某事/) to avoid, to shun, to abstain from, to keep away from, to keep clear of, sg wrong, inappropriate, distasteful, disliked, harmful on moral or practical grounds and through cleverness

eschewal (n)

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy eschews sg (evil, violence; flesh and fowl; smoking; public life, involvement in politics, responsibility, etc.)

 

Example:

柯文哲 () 西裝領帶 只穿白襯衫 會媒體

Ko Wenje eschewed suit and tie for white shirt when he met the press. (Yahoo news)

Ko Wenje   qi4 (bi4)   xi zhuang ling3 dai4   zhi3 chuan   bai2 chen4 shan   huei4 mei2 ti3

 

部長 迴避 涉入地方政治  因為他不想 削減其社區威望

The minister eschews involvement in local politics, since he doesn’t want to diminish his moral authority in the community. (= to get away from a responsibility through cleverness or trickery)

Bu4 zhang3   huei6 bi4   she4 ru4 di4 fan zheng4 zhi4   in wei4 ta bu4 xiang3   xiao ruo4 qi2 she4 qü wei wang4

 

被引見生人時 ()繁文縟節

When introduced to a stranger, he eschewed formalities

Bei4 in3 jian4 sheng ren2 shi2   ta   qi4 (bi4 mian3)  fan2 wen2 ru4 jie2

 

一般素食者 只是  () 禽類

The normal vegetarian only eschews fish, flesh, and fowl.

Yi4 ban su4 shi2 zhe3   zhi3 shi4   bu4 chi   yü2  rou4  qin2 lei4

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 15, 2014 (Monday)  Los Angeles

 

to spook (spook)(vt, vi): Definition

有鬼 (vt); 嚇壞 (動物,)(vt); (替人)抓刀 (vt); (動物) 嚇跑/嚇呆 (vi)

you2 guei3 (vt); xia4 huai4 (dong4 wu4, ren2)(vt); (ti4 ren2)zhua dao (vt); (dong4 wu4) xia4 pao3/xia4 dai (vi)

 

to spook (vt): 有鬼 (of a ghost) to inhabit, to haunt as a spook;  嚇壞 (動物) to stir or excite (a horse, steer) by frightening, to make frightened or frantic, to startle into violent activities such as stampeding; 嚇壞 () (informal) to frighten, to scare a person often so as to make run, freeze, or tremble; (替人)抓刀 to ghostwrite

to spook (vi): (動物) 嚇跑/嚇呆 (informal) to flee, scramble, tremble, stampede, or balk as a result of fright, to become frightened or scared

 

spook (n): Definition

; 怪人; 抓刀人; 黑人; 間牒

Guei3; guai4 ren2; zha dao ren2; hei ren2; jian die2

 

spook (n): (informal) a ghost, specter, apparition; 怪人 (slang) an eccentric or strange person; 抓刀人 (slang) a ghostwriter; 黑人 (slang, extremely disparaging and offensive) a black man; 間諜 a spy, an undercover agent, an espionage agent 

 

spookish (a)

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg spooks a place

Sg spooks an animal.

Sg spooks sy.

Sy spooks a book etc.

An animal spooks at sg.

 

Example:

有鬼 (vt):

武力 如鬼魂般 侵襲歐洲

forces that spook the old world (= to haunt/to inhabit or visit as a spook)

wu3 li4   ru2 guei3 hun2 ban   qin xi2 ou zhou

 

嚇壞 (動物) (vt): 

整群動物  被嚇跑 奔入山裡

The entire herd got spooked and stampeded into the mountains.

 

(動物) 嚇跑/嚇呆 (vi):

飛機飛過時  狼群 嚇跑

Wolves would spook (vi) as the plane flew over. (= to flee, etc.)

Fei ji fei guo4 shi2   lang2 qun2   xia4 pao3 le

 

嚇壞 () (vt):

那些小孩 整夜  把我嚇壞了(海明威)

Those kids had me spooked all night --- they wanted to kill somebody. (Ernest Hemingway)

Na4 xie xiao3 hai2   zheng3 ye4   ba2 wo3 xia4 huai4 le (nai3 ming2 wei)

 

(替人)抓刀(vt):

這位演員 寫回憶錄

He spooked the reminiscences of the actor. (= to ghostwrite the reminiscences)

Ta ti4 zhe4 wei4 yan3 yuan2   xie3 huei2 yi4 lu4

 

鬼魂 (n):

西洋鬼節 指當天夜裡 鬼怪和妖精成群 外遊

Halloween is the night when spooks and goblins are said to roam abroad.

(= the soul of a dead person thought of as appearing to the living people)

Xi yang2 guei3 jie2   zhi3 dang tian ye4 li3   guei3 guai4 he2 yao jing   cheng2 qun2 wai4 you2

 

抓刀人(n):

他是 職業槍手  代人寫小說

He is a professional spook who ghostwrites novels.

Ta shi4    zhi2 ye4 qiang shou3   dai4 ren2 xie3 xiao3 shuo

 

間諜(n):

蘇聯垮台後  蘇俄 召回其間牒

Russia recalled its spooks after the collapse of the Soviet Union. (= spy)

Su lian2 kua3 tai2 hou4   su e4   zhao4 huei2 qi2 jian die2

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 12, 2014 (Friday)  Los Angeles

 

to stymie (STAHY-mee) (vt): Definition

阻擋/妨礙 (vt); (某人)無法解決(問題)(vt, often passive)

Zu2 dang3/fang2 ai4 (vt); (mou3 ren2) wu2 fa3 jie3 jue2 (wen4 ti2)

 

stymie (n):

妨礙球

fang2 ai4 qiu2

 

to stymie (vt): 阻擋/妨礙 to hinder, to block, to obstruct, to thwart, to stand in the way of, to put an obstacle to sg;  (某人)無法解決(問題) to prevent the accomplishment of, to prevent sy from achieving a purpose, to defeat one's attempt to resolve a difficulty

 

stymie (n): 妨礙球 (golf) (formerly) an instance of an opponent’s ball blocking the line between the hole and your ball about to be played on the putting green/an obstructing ball; figuratively, a situation of obstruction, a thoroughly thwarting situation, a situation presenting such difficulties as to defeat attempt to deal with or resolve it, an obstacle, an obstruction; an obstructing ball may now be lifted and replaced by a marker

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy stymies sg.

to stymie one’s effort/attempt/plan/initiative to do sg

Sg stymies sg else.

Sg stymies sy/sy is stymied by sg (= to prevent sy from achieving a purpose)

 

Example:

擋了我成功之路

He has stymied my path to success!

Ta  dang3 le   wo3 cheng2 gong zhi lu4

 

任何 妨礙 發展/創新/進步/進行/交易 之物

Whatever stymies development, innovation, advancement, progress, transaction

ren4 he2  fang2 ai4  fa zhan3/chang4 xin/jin4 bu4/jin4 xing2/jiao yi4

 

妨礙了計畫之進行

Lack of money has stymied the progress on the project.

Que qian2   fang2 ai4 le   ji4 hua4 zhi jin4 xing2

 

兇猛的 暴風雪 擋了  救難人員 尋找 迷路登山人之   企圖心

The raging blizzard stymied the rescuers’ attempts to find the stranded mountain climbers. (= to create difficulty for the work of)

Xiong meng3 de   bao4 feng xue3   dang3 le   jiou4 nan4 ren2 yuang2   xun2 zhao3   mi2 lü4  deng shan ren2   zhi    qi4 tu2 xin

 

遭遇 一些人可能無法解決之障礙l

to encounter obstacles that might stymie some individuals

zao  yü4  ke3 neng2 ka3 zhü4 (dang3 zhu4) yi4 xie ren2 zhi zhang4 ai4

 

解不開 這數學問題

I was stymied by the math question.

Wo3 bei4 shü4 xue2 wen4 ti2  ka3 zhü4 (dang3 zhu4)

 

這問題難倒我

The issue stymies me/I'm stymied by the issue!

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

December 8, 2014 (Monday) Los Angeles

 

to rev (rev) up (vt, vi): Definition

加速(引擎)(vt), (引擎)加速(vi); 活絡(經濟 etc.)(vt), (經濟 etc.)活絡(vi); 激發(激情)(vt),  (激情)飛揚(vi)

Jia su4 (in3 qing2)(vt), (in3 qing2) jia su4; huo2 luo4 (jing ji4 etc.)(vt), (jing ji4 etc.) huo2 luo4; ji fa (ji qing2)(vt), (ji qing2) fei yang2)(vi)

 

to rev up (vt, vi): 加速(引擎)(vt)(of an engine) to increase rpms of an engine/to accelerate (vt) sharply, (引擎)加速(vi) (of an engine) to accelerate (vi); 活絡(經濟 etc.)(vt) to make more active or effective/to increase in activity or strength, (經濟 etc.)活絡(vi) to become more active or effective/to become revved up; 激發(激情)(vt) to stir up, to excite, to stimulate in anticipation,  (激情)飛揚(vi) to become more excited in anticipation

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy revs up sg

Sy revs up. (= to become excited)

Sg revs up.

Sy revs up sy else. (= to excite sy else) 

 

Example:

加速引擎

to rev up the engine (= to increase the speed of revolution of an engine)

jia su4 in3 qing2

 

引擎加速

The engine revved (vi) up. (= to operate at high speed/to accelerate sharply)

In3 qing2 jia su4.

 

活絡 (vt) 經濟

revving up the economy (= to make more active or effective)

huo2 luo4 (vt) jing ji4

 

經濟 開始 活絡 (vi)

The economy is beginning to rev (vi) up

Jing ji4   kai shi3   huo2 luo4

 

三人 飆摩托車

Three people are revving up motor-bikes.

San ren2   biao mo2 duo che

 

黨官 激發 群眾 激情

The party officials revved up the crowd. (= to stir up, to excite, to stimulate in anticipation)

Dang3 guan   ji fa  qun2 zhong4 de   ji qing2

 

參加舞會的人  激情飛揚

The partygoers were revving (vi) up. (- to become more excited in anticipation)

Can jia wu3 huei4 de ren2   ji qing2 fei yang2

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

November 29, 2014 (Saturday)  Los Angeles

 

to spawn (spawn)(vt, vi): Definition

水中動物一堆卵或精子 (vt, vi); 產生(vt); 大量產生(vt)

shuei3  zhong dong4 wu4 chan3 yi4 duei luan3 huo4 jing zi3 (vt, vi);chan3 sheng (vt); da4 liang4 chan3 sheng

 

to spawn (spawn) (vt, vi): 水中動物產一堆卵或精子 (of water animals) to deposit eggs or sperm directly into the water/to lay eggs

to spawn (vt): 產生 to engender, generate, or produce/to bring forth, to give birth to, to give rise to; 大量產生 to produce in large numbers or masses, in great quantity, in multitudes

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg spawns (vt) sg else.

to spawn (vt) a host of, a flurry of, a generation of, a profusion of protests .

Fish spawn (vi).

 

Example:

健康食品熱  產生 數百萬元產值的企業

The health-food craze spawned a multimillion-dollar industry.

Jian4 kang shi2 pin3 re4   chan3 sheng   shu4 bai3 wan4 yuan2 chan3 zhi2 de qi4 ye4

 

貧民窟 滋生(產生) 犯罪元素

Slums spawn the criminal elements.

Pin2 min2 ku   zi sheng (chan3 sheng)   fan4 zuei4 yuan2 su4

 

無知或誤解 引起 (產生) 不耐 惱怒

Ignorance or misunderstanding often spawns impatience and irritation.

Wu2 zhi huo4 wu4 jie3   chang2   yin2 qi3 (chan3 sheng)   bu2 nai4 yü3  nao3 nu4

 

這點子 引起 (產生) 爭議

The idea spawned controversy.

Zhe4 dian3 z3   yin2 qi3 (chan3 sheng)    zheng yi4

 

豐沛雨量  長出 (產生) 許多沙漠野花

Abundant rains, spawning a profusion of desert wild flowers

Feng pei4 yü3 liang4   zhang3 chu (chan3 sheng)   xü3 duo   sha mo4 ye3 hua

 

他的突然消失  造成 (產生) 許多謠言

His sudden disappearance spawned many rumors. (= to give rise to/to give birth to)

Ta de tu2 ran2 xiao shi   zao4 cheng2 (chan3 sheng)   xü3 duo yao2 yan2

 

這電視秀 引起 (產生) 許多 模仿秀

The TV show spawned a host of imitations.

Zhe4 dian4 shi4 xiou4   yin2 qi3 (chan3 sheng)   xü3 duo  mo2 fang3 xiou4

 

這些話 引發 (產生) 許多活動

These words spawn a flurry of activity.

Zhe4 xie hua4   yin3 fa (chan3 sheng)   xü3 duo huo2 dong4

 

鮭魚往上游 游回出生地 產卵

Salmon swim upstream to the place where they were hatched and spawn (vi) there.

Guei yü2 wang3 shang4  you2    you2 huei2 chu sheng de4   chan3 luan3

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

November 23, 2014 (Sunday)

 

blitz (blits)(a): Definition

行動迅速的(a)

Xing2 dong4 xun4 su4 de

 

blitz (a): 行動迅速的like a blitz in speed and effectiveness

 

Sentence pattern:

blitz sg (prenominal)

 

Examples:

行動迅速的 地面部隊

blitz ground units

xing2 dong4 xun4 su4 de   di4 men4 bu4 duei4

 

快速遊覽 歐洲

making a blitz tour of Europe (= like a blitz in speed and effectiveness)

kuai4 su4 yu2 lan3 ou zhou

 

去年車款 清倉迅速銷售

clearing last year’s automobile models in a blitz sale (= offering unusual discounts or other advantages to stimulate immediate volume sale in the retail automobile trade

qü4 nian2 che kuan3   qing chang   xun4 su4 xiao shou4

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

November 22, 2014 (Saturday) John F. Kennedy assassination 51st anniversary

 

to blitz (vi): Definition

衝撞而行 (vi); 魚群爭食 (vi) 

Chong zhuang4 er2 xing2; yü2 qun2 zheng shi2

Chong zhuang4 er2 xing2; yü2 qun2 zheng shi2

 

to blitz (vi): 衝撞而行 to move in the manner of a blitz; 魚群爭食 to gather in large numbers to chase and feed on prey or bait

 

Sentence pattern:

to blitz through a rough place

Fish blitz.

 

Examples:

一台能在丘林地  衝撞而行的車子

a car that will blitz through rough terrain (= to move in the manner of a blitz)

yi4 tai2 neng2 zai4 qiu lin2 di4   chong zhuang4 er2 xing2 de che zi

 

to blitz (vi): 魚群爭食 (vi):

藍色魚 Great Point 追逐爭食o

Bluefish blitz at Great Point. (of fish)(= to gather in large numbers to chase and feed on prey or bait)

lan2 se4 yü2   zai4   Great Point   zhuei zhu2 zheng shi2

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

November 21, 2014 (Friday)

 

to blitz (vt): Definition

密集空襲 (vt); 猛烈攻擊 (vt); 重創 (vt); 擊潰(vt); 摧毀 (vt); 推擠 (vt); (美式足球) 衝撞 (傳球者)(vt)

Mi4 ji2 kong xi2; meng3 lie4 gong ji2; zhong4 chuang4; ji2 kuei4; cuei huei3; tuei ji3; (mei3 shi4 zu2 qiu2) chong zhang4 (chuan2 qiu2 zhe3)

 

to blitz (vt): 密集空襲 to attack or defeat with a blitz/to use bombs or artillery against; 猛烈攻擊 to make a vigorous attack on; 重創 to damage by or as if by blitz; 擊潰to defeat with or as if with a blitz/to defeat a competitor decisively)(informal); 摧毀 to destroy/to demolish; 推擠to hustle/to push/to move; (美式足球) 衝撞 (傳球者) to red-dog the passer/to rush the passer/to have a rush on the passer/to charge directly and immediately the passer in football as soon as the ball is snapped

 

Sentence pattern:

to blitz a city

to blitz sy

to blitz sg

 

Examples: 

密集空襲 (vt):

1940 1941, 德國空軍 連夜密集轟炸 倫敦

In 1940 and 1941 the German air force blitzed London night after horrible night. (= to attack or defeat with a blitz/to use bombs or artillery against)

Zai4 1940 he2 1941 nian2, de2 guo2 kong jun lian2 ye4 mi4 ji2 hong zha4  lun2 dun

 

猛烈攻擊 (vt):

一群醫生 傾力治病

An army of doctors blitzed the disease. (= to make a vigorous attack on)

Yi4 qun2 yi sheng   qing li4 zhi4 bing4

 

重創 (vt):

上個月 國會刪減他們的預算 重創他們o

Congress blitzed them last month by cutting their budgets. (= to damage by or as if by blitz)

Shang4 ge yue4   guo2 huei4 shan jian3 ta men2 de yü4 suan4   zhong chang4 ta men2

 

擊潰(vt):

客隊 擊垮 主隊

The visitors really blitzed the home team. (= to defeat as if with a blitz/to defeat a competitor decisively)(informal)

Ke4 duei4  ji2 kua3  zhu3 duei4

 

摧毀 (vt):

他最後一分鐘的拒絕 毀了 我們所有的計畫o

His last-minute refusal blitzed all our plans. (= to destroy/demolish)

Ta zuei4 hou4 yi fen zhong de jü4 jue2   huei3 le   wo3 men2 suo2 you3 de ji4 hua4

 

推擠 (vt):

我被 推擠 午餐櫃檯座位o

I was blitzed off my lunch-counter seat. (= to hustle/to push/to move)

Wo3 bei4  tuei ji3 chu   wu3 can guei4 tai2 zuo4 wei4

 

努力 促使 芝加哥大會 提早投票

a drive to blitz the Chicago convention into an early ballot. (= to cause to act without due consideration) 

nu3 li4  cu4 shi3  zhi jia ge  da4 huei4   ti2 zao3 tou2 piao4

 

(美式足球) 衝撞 (傳球者)(vt):

美式足球後衛 衝撞 傳球員

The football linebacker blitzed the passer (= to red-dog the passer/to charge directly and immediately as soon as the ball is snapped/to rush the passer in football/to have a rush on the passer)

Mei3 shi4 zu2 qiu2 hou4 wei4   chong zhang4   chuan2 qiu2 yuan2

 

 

 

 

 

神農子教室

November 20, 2014 (Thursday)

 

blitz (blits)(n): Definition

(原義)(陸空聯合)猛攻; 密集空襲; (引申) 密集快速行動  (n)

(yuan2 yi4)(lu4 kong lian2 he2) meng3 gong; mi4 ji2 kong xi2; (in3 shen) mi4 ji2 xing2 dong4

 

blitz (n): (原義)(陸空聯合)猛攻 Literally, an overwhelming all-out mechanized ground attack or military campaign in close coordination with massed air forces; 密集空襲 an intensive aerial bombing, bombardment, or aerial military campaign or air raid; (引申) 密集快速行動 figuratively, any sudden swift vigorous attack, or concerted effort/any heavy onslaught or attack/a rapid, overwhelming outpouring of many things at once

(The word in these senses conveys 3 notions of activities: being intensive, being swift, being overwhelming or vigorouso)

 

Sentence pattern:

an aerial blitz (= an air raid)

an advertising blitz, a marketing blitz, a TV-spots blitz

a blitz of advertisements or commercials

 

Examples:

(/) 猛攻 (n); 空襲 (n): 

Blitz 是德文blitzkrieg 的縮寫, blitz 閃電, krieg 指戰爭, blitzkrieg 閃電戰o

Blitz’ is a shortening for ‘blitzkrieg’, with blitz meaning lightening, krieg war, and blitzkrieg, a war conducted with great speed and force such that mobility may be exploited to the fullest)

‘Blitz’ shi4 de2 wen2  ‘blitzkrieg’ de suo xie3, ‘blitz’ zhi3 shan3 dian4, ‘krieg’ zhi3 zhan4 zheng, ‘blitzkrieg’ zhi3  shan3 dian4 zhan4

 

大規模空襲 本想 震撼 和嚇壞 敵軍 迫其 立刻投降o

a massive aerial blitz that was supposed to shock and awe the enemy into immediate surrender (= the act or action of setting upon with force or violence)

ta4 guei mo2 kong xi2  ben2 xiang3  zhen4 han4  he2  xia4 huai4  di2 jun   po4 qi2 li4 ke4 tou2 xiang2

 

密集快速行動 (n):

中國 密集快速打擊 貪腐 打到一些美國公司o

China’s blitz against corruption hits some US companies.

Zhong guo2  mi4 ji2 kuai4 su4 da3 ji2 tan fu3   ta3 dao4 yi xie mei3 guo2 gong si

 

他的最佳戰略 在選舉前(幾天) 播出 密集電視廣告

His best strategy was a blitz of TV spots just before the election.(= any heavy onslaught, assault, or attack)(= television-spots blitz)

ta de zuei4 jia zhan4 lue4  nai3  zai4 xuan3 jü3 qian2 (ji3 tian) bo chu  mi4 ji2 dian4 shi4 guang3 gao4

 

幾分鐘一次的 密集廣告

a blitz of commercials every few minutes

ji3 fen zhong yi ci4 de  mi4 ji2 guang3 gao4

 

 

 

 

神農子教室

November 16, 2014 (Saturday)

 

restitution (n)(-tyoo-): Definition

歸還(失物/竊物); 賠償(損失/傷害); 恢復(原狀)

Guei huan2 (shi wu4/qie4 wu4); pei2 chang2(sun3 shi/shang hai4) ; huei fu4 (yuan2 zhuang4)

 

restitution (n)(-tyoo-): 歸還(失物/竊物) giving back sg lost or stolen to its rightful owner; 賠償(損失/傷害) a sum of money paid to sy for his loss sustained, expense incurred, or injury suffered; 恢復(原狀) a return to or restoration of a previous state or position

 

Sentence patterns :

restitution of sg lost or stolen to the owner (= return)

to make or pay restitution to sy for loss or damage (= payment or repayment)

to pay $1,000 in restitution

restitution of sg to a previous state (= restoration)

 

Examples : 

歸還(失物/竊物):

歸還失物 或竊物予  原物主

restitution of sg lost or stolen to its rightful owner

guei huan2 shi wu4 huo4 qie4 wu4 ü3   yuan2 wu4 zhu3

 

竊賊主動歸還竊物

the voluntary restitution of the stolen property by the thief

qie4 zei2 zhu3 dong4 guei huan2 qie4 wu4

 

設法討回充公之藝術品

to seek return or restitution of the confiscated works of art

she4 fa3 tao3 huei2 chong gong zhi yi4 shu4 pin3

 

賠償(損失/傷害):

賠償法

restitution law

pei2 chang2 fa3

 

商業賠償

commercial restitution

shang yie4 pei2 chang2

 

賠償刑事犯罪之受害者

to make or pay restitution to the victim of the crime

pei2 chang2 xing2 shi4 fan4 zuei4 zhi shou4 hai4 zhe3

 

恢復(原狀):

重建與恢復圖書館

reconstruction and restitution of the library

chong2 jian4 ü3 huei fu4 tu2 shu guan3

 

取消與復原

cancellation and restitution  

qü3 xiao ü3 fu4 yuan2

 

無須復權

Restitution of rights is unnecessary.

Wu2 xü fu4 quan2

 

很有望復職

The prospect for restitution of his previous position is great. (= reinstatement)

Hen3 you3 wang4 fu4 zhi2

 

 

 

 

November 11, 2014 (Tuesday) 

 

to opine (oh-pahyn)(vt, vi): Definition

表示意見 (verb)

biao3 shi4 yi4 jian4

 

to opine (oh-pahyn)(vt, vi): to give a formal opinion on or about sg; to state as an opinion

 

Sentence pattern:

to opine (vt) sg

to opine (vt) that ---(a clause)

to opine (vi) on a subject

to opine (vi) about sg

 

Examples:

有學者 隱私與安全 的平衡點 應該移至後者

Some pundits opine that the balance between privacy and security 

must shift in favor of the latter.

You3 xue2 zhe3 shuo  yin3 si yü3 an quan2 de ping2 heng2 dian3 ing gai yi2 zhi4 hou4 zhe3

 

任何題目 你都可表示意見

You can opine about any subject you like.

Ren4 he2 ti2 mu4  ni3 dou ke3 biao3 shi4 yi4 jian4

 

老將軍 高聲公開 安全政策

Senior generals opine loudly and publicly on security policy.

Lao3 jiang jun  gao sheng gong kai  tan2 an quan2 zheng4 ce4

 

有些事我們懂  有些事 我們只能說說

Some things we know, some we only opine. (= to have or hold an

    opinion about)

you3 xie shi4 wuo3 men2 dong3  you3 xie shi4  wuo3 men2 zhi3 neng2 shuo shuo

 

 

 

 

November 22, 2013 (Friday)(50th anniversary of J. F. Kennedy assassination!)

 

hiatus (hahy-EY-) (n)(I):  Definition

中輟; 中隔; 洞口; 不足之處  (4個定義 皆表達 /不連續 的概念

Zhong chuo4; zhong ge2; dong4 kou3; bu4 zu2 zhi chu4

 

hiatus (ahy-EY-) (n):  a break or interruption in the continuity of a work, action, or series, etc.; a gap or missing part or lacuna (-kyoo-) in a manuscript, series, or logical argument; a natural opening or aperture; an incomplete or deficient area

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy is on hiatus from work/sg on hiatus.

a 10-year hiatus from writing, etc.

a hiatus between 2 buildings, etc.

 

hiatus (hahy-EY-) (n)(II):  Example:

中輟:

中輟10年後, 學校 恢復教學

The school resumed its program last year after a 10-year hiatus.

Zhong chuo4 shi2 nian2 hou4, xue2 xiao4 hue fu4 jiao xue2

 

他們2 休學

They’re both on hiatus from college.

Ta men2 er4 ren2 jie xiou xue2

 

中隔:  

市區 鐵路 之間的 荒草空地

the weedy hiatus between the town and railway

Shi4 qü han4 tie3 lu4  zhi jian de  huang cao3 kong4 di4

 

黨的 理論和實務之間的 距離

the hiatus between the theory and the practice of the party (= gap)

dang3 de  li3 lun4 han4  shi2 wu4 zhi jian de   jü4 li2

 

學者 試圖 解釋 中世紀文件中的 空白處

Scholars attempted to account for the hiatus in the medieval manuscript.

(= the missing part)

Xue2 zhe3   shi4 tu2   jie3 shi4   zhong shi4 ji4 wen2 jian4 zhong de   kong4 bai2 chu4

 

hiatus (hahy-EY-) (n)(III):  Example:

洞口:

蒸氣從 地上洞口 冒出

Steam was rising from an hiatus in the ground. (= a natural aperture or opening)

Zheng qi4 cong2   di4 shang4 dong4 kou3   mao4 chu

 

不足之處:

法律缺口 使地方檢察官 無法 起訴 犯法者

a hiatus in the law which prevented district attorney from prosecuting offenders. (= a deficient area)

fa3 lü4 que kou3   shi3 di4 fang jian3 cha2 guan   wu2 fa3   qi3 su4   fan4 fa3 zhe3

 

 

 

 

 

October 18, 2013 (Friday)

 

virulence (n)(vir-):

(/病毒之)高致病毒性; (病之)惡毒; (話之)惡毒

(jün4/bing4 du2 zhi)gao zhi4 bing4 du2 xing4;(bing4 zhi)e4 du2;(hua4 zhi) e4 du2

 

virulence (n): the state of being virulent (highly pathogenic/extremely poisonous or venomous; extremely bitter/harsh)

virulence (vir-)(n): high pathogenicity or malignancy (high disease-producing capacity) of a microorganism; venomousness; extreme bitterness.   

 

Sentence pattern:

the virulence of  a pathogen/disease/comment/criticism

 

 

Example:

一種病毒之 高致病毒性/一種病之惡毒

the virulence of a virus/the virulence of a disease

yi zhong3 bing4 du2 zhi  gao zhi4 bing4 xing4/yi zhong3 bing4 zhi e4 du2

 

他的評語 惡毒昭然 

the striking virulence of his comments

ta de ping2 yü3  e4 du2 zhao ran2

 

該批評之惡毒 我很驚訝

I was surprised by the virulence of the criticism

Gai pi ping2 zhi e4 du2   wo3 hen3 jing ya4

 

她痛罵他 用語之惡毒 讓他非常生氣

He is enraged at the virulence of her invective against him. (invective = vehement denunciation or verbal attack)

Ta tong4 ma4 ta   yong yü3 zhi e4 du2   rang4 ta fei chang2 sheng qi4

 

 

 

 

 

October 16, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

to expostulate (vi):

勸人勿做某事(反對某人做某事)

Quan4 ren2 wu4 zuo4 mou3 shi4 (fan3 duei4 mou3 ren2 zuo4 mou3 shi4)

 

to expostulate (-spos-)(vi): to reason (with sy) in order to dissuade from an action, measure etc./to reason with sy against sg that person intends to do or has done/to remonstrate 

 

Sentence pattern:

to expostulate with sy against/about/regarding sg

 

Example:

一位倔強的人 毫無用處

It’s useless to expostulate with a stubborn man.

Quan4 yi wei4 jue2 jiang4 de ren2  hao2 wu2 yong chu4

 

記者會上的記者 反對報導时 偏好一方

Reporters at this press conference expostulated against playing favorites. (to play favorites = to display favoritism, i.e. giving special treatment to sy or some group)

Ji4 zhe3 huei4 shang4 de ji4 zhe   fan3 duei4 bao4 dao3 shi2  pian hao4 yi fang

 

他父親 勸他說 賭博是邪惡之事

His father expostulated with him about the evils of gambling.

Ta fu4 qin  quan4 ta shuo   du3 bo2 shi4 xie2 e4 zhi shi4

 

 

 

 

 

October 15, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

to remonstrate (-mon-)(vi)(I):

勸人勿做某事(反對某人做某事)

Quan4 ren2 wu4 zuo4 mou3 shi4 (fan3 duei4 mou3 ren2 zuo4 mou3 shi4)

 

to remonstrate (vi): to present reasons in opposition/to say in protest, objection, disapproval, or opposition/to expostulate (-spos-).

 

Sentence pattern:

to remonstrate with sy against/about/regarding sg  

 

Example:

該選區選民 有機會 當局 建立該機構

The registered voters of the district are then provided an opportunity to remonstrate against the establishment of the organization.

Gai xuan3 qü xuan3 min2  you3 ji huei4   quan4 dang jü2 wu4   jian4 li4 gaqi ji9 gou4

 

兒子 改掉某些習慣

She remonstrated with her son  regarding his habits

Ta quan4 er2 zi  gai3 diao4  mou3 xie  xi2 guan4

 

我有禮貌的勸他 亂丟垃圾 他生氣了

He got angry when I politely remonstrated with him about littering.

Wo3 you2 li3 mao4 de quan4 ta   wu4 luan4 diu le se4   ta sheng qi4 le

 

我勸她 不要她父親了 他的心意已定

I discouraged her from remonstrating with her father, whose mind was obviously made up.

Wo3 quan4 ta   bu2 yao4 quan4 ta fu4 qin le   ta de xin yi4 yi3 ding4

 

 

 

 

October 15, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

to remonstrate (-mon-)(vi)(II):

勸人勿做某事(反對某人做某事)

Quan4 ren2 wu4 zuo4 mou3 shi4 (fan3 duei4 mou3 ren2 zuo4 mou3 shi4)

 

Example

有時候, 時機來了, 寶釵會嘗試 勸勸 寶玉, 但她的勸告 會被氣憤的拒絕

From time to time, as opportunity presented itself, Baochai would attempt to remonstrate with baoyu; but her remonstrances would be indignantly rejected.

You3 shi2 hou4   shi2 ji lai2 le   bao3 chai huei4 chang2 shi4   quan4 quan4  bao3 yü4   dan4 ta de quan4 gao4   huei4 bei4 qi4 fen4 de jü4 jue2

 

為何像你如此純真 甜美的女孩 要學那群 鬼般偷偷摸摸的  鑽營獵等的傢伙,” 他會說, “腦袋煩於 名譽 口碑等等無聊的東西? --- 那全然是 你與生俱來的 聰明才智 的濫用

“Why should a pure, sweet girl like you want to go imitating that ghastly crew of thievish, place-hunting career worms, ” he would say, “bothering her head about ‘fame’ and ‘reputation’ and all that sort of rubbish? --- It’s a rank abuse of the intellectual gifts you were born with.”

“wei4 he2 xiang4 ni3 ru2 ci3 chuen2 zhen   tian2 mei3 de nü3 hai2   yao4 xue2 na4 qun2   guei3 ban tout ou mo mo de   zuan ying2 lie4 deng3 de jia huo3, ” ta huei4 shuo, “nao3 dai4 fan2 yü2 ming2 ‘yü4’ han4 ‘kou3 bei’ deng2 deng3 wu2 liao2 de dong xi? --- na4 quan2 ran2 shi4   ni3 yü3 sheng jü4 lai2 de   cong ming2 cai2 zhi4 de lan4 yong4       

(to be continued)

“”””

 

 

 

 

 

October 15, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

to remonstrate (-mon-)(vi)(III):

勸人勿做某事(反對某人做某事)

Quan4 ren2 wu4 zuo4 mou3 shi4 (fan3 duei4 mou3 ren2 zuo4 mou3 shi4)

 

Example

聽他說得如此狂妄, 勸說者(寶釵)斷定他是有點生氣, 最後終於放棄和他認真o

Hearing him talk so wildly, the remonstrator concluded that he was slightly mad, and eventually gave up trying to be serious with him.

Ting ta shuo de2 ru2 ci3 kuang2 wang4   quan4 shuo zhe3 (Baochai) duang4 ding4 ta shi4 you2 dian3 sheng qi4, zuei4 hou4 zhong yü2 fan5 qi4 han4 ta ren4 zhen   

 

黛玉是個例外, 她從來不和他說甚麼要 欣欣向榮 功成名就的話o 這是寶玉非常尊敬黛玉的理由之一o

The exception was Daiyu who had never once spoken to Baoyu about the need to “to get on in the world” or “make a name for yourself.”  This was one of the reasons why he so much respected her.

Daiyü shi4 ge li4 wai4, ta cong2 lai2 bu4 han4 ta shuo she2 mo yao4 “xin xin xiang4 rong2” huo4 “gong cheng2 ming2 jiou4” de hua4o  zhe4 shi4 Baoyü fei chang2 zuen jing4 Daiyü de li3 you2 zhi yi    

(from ‘The Story of the Stone’ 紅樓夢, 牛津大學漢學家  David Hawkes 英譯文, first published 1977)

 

 

 

 

 

October 13, 2013 (Sunday)

 

to instill (vt)(I): Definition

(長期緩慢)灌輸(某思想etc.); 一次一滴注入

(chang2 qi2 huan3 man4) guan4 shu (mou3 si xiang3 etc.); yi ci4 yi di zhu4 ru4

 

to instill (vt): to infuse or introduce gradually into the mind/to impart gradually over a long period of time/to implant or set permanently in the mindset; to pour in or introduce in drops or drop by drop or a drop at a time 

 

Sentence pattern:

to instill sg in sy

to instill a liquid drop by drop

 

 

 

 

 

October 13, 2013 (Sunday)

 

to instill (vt)(II): Example

2小時 在有病的眼睛內 12

Instill 1 to 2 drops every 2 hours in the affected eye.

Mei3 er4 xiao3 shi2   zai4 you3 bing4 de u`yan3 jing li3   di 1 zhi4 2 di

 

在小孩們心中 長期灌輸/植入學習 的熱忱

Instill (or implant) a love of learning in children (= to impart gradually)

Zai4 xiao3 hai2 men2 xing zhong   chang2 qi2 guan4 shu/zhi2 ru4 xue2 xi2 de re4 chen2

 

人氣望 的領袖 在他的追隨者心中 長期灌輸/植入獻身於理想 的熱忱

A charismatic leader instilled in his followers a passionate commitment to the cause

Ren2 qi2 wang4 de lingh3 xiou4  zai4 ta de zhuei suei2 zhe3 xin zhong   chang2 qi2 guan4 shu/zhi2 ru4  xiang4 shen yü2 li2 xiang3 de re4 chen2

 

此法 能在 受誘惑者心中 長期灌輸/植入 美德

This is a method to instill virtue in the tempted

Ci3 fa2  neng2 zai4  shou4 you4 huo4 zhe3 xin zhong   chang2 qi2 guan4 shu/zhi2 ru4  mei3 de2

 

大學教育 長期灌輸/植入 (學生的) 好奇心

College education should instill curiosity.

Ta4 xue2 jiao4 yü4  ying  chang2 qi2 guan4 shu/zhi2 ru4  (xue2 sheng de) hao4 qi2 xin

 

他們常散播假故事 說他們很兇殘 旨在敵人心中 注入恐懼和混亂

They would often circulate apocryphal (-pok-) stories about their might and cruelty in order to instill fear and confusion in their enemies (apocryphal = false/spurious)

Ta men2 chang3 san4 bo4 jia3 gu4 shi4   shuo ta men2 hen3 xuong can2   zh2 zai4 di2 ren2 xin zhong  zhu4 ru4 kong3 jü4 han4 hun4 luan4

 

 

 

 

 

October 12, 2013 (Saturday)

 

to embolden (or to imbolden)(-bohl-)(vt):

壯膽(做某事)

Zhuang4 dan3 (zuo4 mou3 shi4)

 

to embolden (or to imbolden) (vt): to make bold or bolder/to encourage/to impart boldness or courage to sy to overcome timidity/to instill (infuse gradually or impart gradually) boldness or bravery in sy

 

Sentence pattern:

to embolden sy to do sg.   

 

Example:

他們(之所為) 壯了極端份子的膽量 也在派別緊張上 火上加油

They embolden extremists and fuel sectarian tensions.

Ta men2 (zhi suo2 wei2) zhuang4 le  ji2 duan fen4 zi3 de dan3 liang4  ye3 zai4 pai4 bie2 jin3 zhang shang4  huo3 shang4 jia you2

 

這些經歷 加強 我們的責任感 保護環境 免於污染威脅

These experiences embolden our sense of duty to protect the environment from the threat of pollution.

Zhe4 xie jing li4  jia qiang2  wo3 men2 de ze2 ren4 gan3   bao3 hu4 huan2 jing4  mian3 yü2 wu ran3 wei xie2

 

付贖金 換回人質 只會其他海盜 更膽大

Paying a ransom to return hostages will only embolden other pirates.

Fu4 shu3 jin  huan4 huei2 ren2 zhi2   zhi3 huei4 rang4 qi2 ta hai3 dao4  geng4 tan3 ta4

 

 

 

 

 

October 9, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

to default (vi, vt)(I): Definition

to default (-aw-)(vi):

時間到未還債; 未出席(法院審案); 未出席(體育競賽); 選用電腦原設定; (vt): 時間到未還債; (法官)做缺席判決

Shi2 jian dao4wei4 huan2 zhai4; wei4 chu xi2 (fa3 yuan4 shen3 an4); wei4 chu xi2 (ti3 yü4 jing4 sai4); xuan3 yong dian4 nao3 yuan2 she4 ding4;

(vt): Shi2 jian dao4wei4 huan2 zhai4; (fa3 guan) zuo4 que xi2 pan4 jue2

 

to default (vi): to fail to pay a debt when due (in phrases, to default on, to default in); to fail to appear in court (in phrase, to default on); to make a default selection  (in phrase, to default to)

to default (vt): (a judge) to declare that a party (a plaintiff or defendant) is in default

 

Sentence pattern:

to default on a loan

to default in the repayment of a loan

to default in a sporting contest

(computer) to default to sg

to default a debt/to default sy

 

 

 

 

 

October 9, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

to default (vi, vt)(II): Example

貸款人違約欠債, 銀行可查封房子

If the borrower defaults (on a loan), the bank can take the house.

When he defaulted in his payments, the bank foreclosed on his car.

If the borrower defaults (vt) a debt, the bank can take the house.

Dai4 kuan3 ren2 wei2 yue qian4 zhai4, yin2 hang2 ke3 cha2 feng fang2 zi

 

牛津飛行協會(被告) 未出席訴訟案

Oxford Aviation defaulted (vi) on lawsuit/a lawsuit.

Niu2 jing fei xing2 xie2 huei4 (bei4 gao4) wei4 chu xi2 su4 song4 an4

 

法官 被告 審判缺席敗訴

The judge defaulted the defendant. (= to declare that sy is in default)

Fa3 guan  pan4 bei4 gao4  shen3 pan4 que xi2 bai4 su4

 

法官 原告 審判缺席 撤銷訴訟案

The judge defaulted the plaintiff.

Fa3 guan  pan4 yuan2 gao4  sheng3 pan4 que xi2   che4 xiao su4 song4 an4

 

他體育競賽 缺席 輸了比賽

He defaulted in a sporting contest and lost it.

Ta ti3 yü4 jing4 sai4  que xi2  shu le bi3 sai4

 

電腦軟體 標準字體大小 為原設定

The program defaults to a standard font. 

Dian4 nao3 ruan2 ti3   yi3 biao zhun3 zi4 ti3 ta4 xiao3   wei2 yuan2 she4 ding4

 

 

 

 

 

October 6, 2013 (Sunday)

 

default (n)(I): 

倒債/債務違約(未依約定付款還債); (比賽/法院審案)缺席; 無行動/疏失; (某物); (電腦軟體)原始設定

Dao3 zhai4/zhai4 wu4 wei3 yue (wei4 yi yue ding4 fu4 kuan3 huan2 zhai4); (bi3 sai4/fa3 yuan4 shen3 an4) que xi2; wu2 xing2 dong4/shu shi; que (mou3 wu4); (dian4 nao3 ruan2 ti3) yuan2 shi3 she4 ding4

 

default (-aw-)(n): a failure to pay a debt; a failure to compete in an athlete contest (in phrase, by default); a failure to appear in court (in phrase, in default); a failure to act/inaction/neglect (in phrase, by default); absence/lack (in phrase, in default of) ; computer program setting before user overrides it with a new setting of his own

 

Sentence pattern:

a default of sg

a default against sy

to lose sy/sg by default/to win sg by default

Sy is in default.

in default of sg

a default setting, font, or password, etc.

 

 

 

 

 

October 6, 2013 (Sunday)

 

default (n)(II): 

 

Example

分期付款違約(= 時間到未付款還$)

default of his loan terms

fen qi2 fu4 kuan3 wei3 yue (= shi2 jian dao4 wei4fu4 kuan3 huan2 $)

 

未還銀行貸款 

a default in the repayment of a bank loan  

wei4 huan2 yin2 hang2 dai4 kuan3

 

由於疏失 優勢 飛了

a position of advantage lost by mere default

you2 yü2 shu shi   you shi4  fei le

 

由於(他們)無行動 他們的 最佳客戶 跑了

They lost their best client by sheer default. (= inaction)

you2 yü2 (ta men2) wu2 xing2 dong4   ta men2 de   zuei4 jia ke4 hu4  pao3 le  

 

競選對手 他成了首相

He became prime minister by default (= no opposition)

Wu2 jing4 xuan3 duei4 shou3   ta cheng2 le   shou3 xiang4

 

他未出席比賽 輸了 (= 對手出席比賽 贏了)

He lost the athletic game by default. (= by failure to compete in or to finish a contest)

Ta wei4 chu xi2 bi3 sai4   shu le

 

該電腦軟體 原設定的字體大小 為何?

Which font is the default in that computer program?

Gai dian4 nao3 ruan2 ti3  yuan2 she4 ding4 de zi4 ti3 ta4 xiao3  wei2 he2?

 

 

 

 

 

October 6, 2013 (Sunday)

 

default (n)(III): 

 

Example

缺席判決 乃原告或被告一方 未出席法院審案 法官所做成的判決 (神農子注: 通常出席的一方獲判勝訴

Judgment by default is a judgment entered as a result of the failure of a party to appear in court)  

Que xi2 pan4 jue2   nai3 yuan2 gao4 huo4 bei4 gao4 yi fang   wei4 chu xi2 fa3 yuan4 shen3 an4   fa3 guan suo3 zuo4 cheng2 de pan4 jue2 (shen2 nong2 zi3 zhu4: tong chang2 chu xi2 de yi fang huo4 pan4 sheng4 su4)

 

他因未出席法院審案 被判敗訴 

He lost the case by default. (= failure to appear in court)

Ta yin wei4 chu xi2 fa3 yuan4 shen3 an4   bei4 pan4 bai4 su4

 

地方法院 判他 審判缺席 

The district court entered a default against him.

Di4 fang fa3 yuan4   pan4 ta   shen3 pan4 que xi2

 

他收到 缺席審判敗訴 的郵件

A default judgment against her arrived in the mail.

Ta shou dao4   que xi2 shen3 pan4 bai4 su4  de you2 jian4

 

 

 

 

 

October 6, 2013 (Sunday)

 

default (n)(IV): 

 

Example

原告在法院審案時 缺席未執行訴訟動作 稱為 in default (: 結果原告訴訟案可能被撤銷

A plaintiff is in default when he has failed to appear in court at the required time to prosecute an action. (Note: as a result the plaintiff may be nonsuited)(to nonsuit a plaintiff = to dismiss the lawsuit against the defendant) 

Yuan2 gao4 zai4 fa3 yuan4 shen 3 an4 shi2   que xi2 wei4 zhi2 xing2 su4 song4 dong4 zuo4  cheng wei2   in default (zhu4: jie2 guo3 yuan2 gao4 su4 song4 an4 ke3 neng2 bei4 che4 xiao)

 

被告在法院審案時 缺席未執行辯護動作 稱為 in default (: 被告一方可能被判敗訴)

A defendant is in default when he has made no appearance in the case to defend an action. (Note: the defendant may have judgment rendered against him) 

Bei4 gao4 zai4 fa3 yuan4 shen3 an4 shi2   que xi2 wei4 zhi2 xing2 bian4 hu4 dong zuo4  cheng wei2  in default (zhu4: bei4 gao4 yi fang ke3 neng2 bei4 pan4 bai4 su4)

 

水則死

The fish will in default of water die. (= in the lack of) 

yü2 wu2 shuei3 ze2 si3

 

證據 不成審判案 

In default of evidence there was no trial.

Wu2 zheng4 jü4  bu4 cheng2 shen3 pan4 an4

 

 

 

 

 

October 3, 2013 (Thursday)

 

rung (ruh-) (n):

(原義)(梯子的) ; (引申)位階

(yuan2 yi4) (ti zi de) jie ; (yin3 shen) wei4 jie

 

rungs (ruh-) (n): Literally, crosspieces forming the steps of a ladder; figuratively, a stage in a scale/a level in a hierarchy.     

 

Sentence pattern:

on the top/bottom rung of a ladder/hierarchy

 

Example:

他鑽到最高職位

He made his way to the top rung

Ta zuan dao4 zuei4 gao zhi2 wei4

 

他獲選入最高職位 

He is elected to the top rung.

Ta huo4 xuan3 ru4 zuei4 gao zhi2 wei4

 

他在公司 連升了幾 

He rose a few rungs in the company.

Ta zai4 gong si  lian2 sheng le ji3 ji2

 

政治階梯的最低位置

on the bottom rung of the political ladder etc.

zheng4 zhi4 jie ti de zuei4 di wei4 zhi4

 

這些窮人佔據 人類階梯的最低

These poor people occupy the lowest rung of humanity’s ladder.

Zhe4 xie qiong2 ren2 zhan4 jü4  ren2 lei4 jie ti de zuei4 di ceng2

 

社會最高位階/學術圈最低

the top rung of society/the bottom rung of academic ladder

she4 huei4 zuei4 gao wei4 jie/xue2 shu4 quan zuei4 di ceng2

 

 

 

 

 

October 2, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

a totem pole (n):

(原義) 圖騰柱(美國印地安人的刻有家族圖騰史的柱子); (引申)象徵(有分等級的)一群人的徽章或圖騰

(yuan2 yi4) tu2 teng2 zhu4 (mei3 guo2 yin4 di4 an ren2 de ke4 you3 jia zu2 tu2 teng2 shi3 de zhu4 zi); (yin3 shen) xiang4 zheng (you3 fen deng3 ji2 de) yi qun2 ren2 de huei zhang huo4 tu2 teng2

 

a totem (toh-) pole (n): Literally, a pole on which totems (圖騰) (the emblem of a family or clan) representing family lineage are carved or painted and erected in front of houses by American Indians as a tribal symbol; figuratively, a symbol of a hierarchy.

 

Sentence pattern:

high or low on the totem pole

 

Example:

她的位階為何?

Where does she stand on the totem pole?

Ta de wei4 jie wei4 he2?

 

他是低層人員

He is low on the totem pole/low man on the totem pole/at the low end of the totem pole.

Ta shi4 di ceng2 ren2 yuan2

 

我們必須款待政壇高官

We’ll have to entertain top men on the political totem pole

Wo3 men2 bi4 xü kuan3 dai4 zheng4 tan2 gao guan

 

(有等級的)官僚體系

the bureaucratic totem pole (= a hierarchical system)

(you2 deng3 ji2 de) guan liao2 ti3 xi4

 

 

 

 

 

September 27, 2013 (Friday)

 

murky (-ur-) (a):

/陰暗; 茫茫一片(多煙/); (語意)模糊/難懂; (顏色)黯淡; 陰森

hei/yin an4; mang2 mang2 yi pian4 (duo yan/wu4); (yü3 yi4) mo2 hu2/nan2 dong3; (yan2 se4) an4 dan4; yin sen

 

murky (a): without light or without much light; foggy/hazy/misty; vague/confused/unclear; dull in color; causing a cheerless atmosphere 

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg is murky.

 

Example:

森林大火 使天空白茫茫一片

The skies were murky with the smoke of forest fires.

Sen lin2 ta4 huo3   shi3 tian kong bai2 mang2 mang2 yi pian4

 

水色朦朧 看不清楚 水底下紀念碑

The murky waters obscure the views of submerged monuments.  

Shuei3 se4 mong2 long2   kan4 bu4 qing chu3   shuei2 di3 xia4 ji4 nian4 bei

 

官腔模糊

murky official rhetoric (= having an intentionally veiled or uncertain meaning)

guang qiang mo2 hu2

 

他對死刑 立場模糊

his murky position on the issue of capital punishment

ta duei4 si3 xing2   li4 chang3 mo2 hu2

 

墓地氣氛陰森

the murky shadows of the cemetery (= causing an atmosphere lacking in cheer)

mu4 di4 qi4 fen4 yin sen

 

 

 

 

 

September 26, 2013 (Thursday)

 

provident (prov-)(a):

細心準備未來的需要(通常說成 未雨綢繆); 節儉

Xi4 xin zhun3 bei4 wei4 lai2 de xü yao4 (tong chang2 shuo cheng2   wei4 yü3 chou2 mou2); jie2 jian3

 

provident (a): having foresight in the management of one’s affairs/characterized by or proceeding from foresight/to provide for or against; economical, frugal, or thrifty in the management of money or resources

 

Sentence pattern: 

Sy is provident/sg provident.

 

Example:

這些 未雨綢繆的 措施 可保我們平安 度過 颱風的肆虐

These provident measures will keep us safe while waiting out the devastating typhoon.

Zhe4 xie   wei4 yü3 chou2 mou2 de  cuo4 shi   ke2 bao3 wo3 men2 ping2 an  du4 guo4  tai2 feng de si4 nue4

 

你是個 未雨綢繆的

You’re a provident person/you are provident. (= you plan carefully for the future)

Ni3 shi4 ge   wei4 yü3 chou2 mou2 de ren2

 

一位未雨綢繆的 父親 為小孩的教育 做準備

A provident father plans for his children’s education. (= providing carefully for the future needs)

Yi wei4 wei4 yü3 chou2 mou2 de  fu4 qin   wei4 xiao3 hai2 de jiao4 yü4   zuo4 zhun3 bei4

 

節儉而不吝嗇 可以做到

It’s possible to be provident without being miserly.

Jie2 jian3 er2 bu4 lin4 se4  ke3 yi3 zuo4 dao4

 

 

 

 

 

September 25, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

to eclipse (vt):

引起日月蝕; (把對方)比下去/超越

 

to eclipse (vt): to cast a shadow upon/to darken/to obscure; to surpass in importance or power/to overshadow/to outshine

 

Sentence pattern: 

Sy eclipses sy else/Sg eclipses sg else.

 

Example:

月蝕乃 地球影子落在月球上

The lunar eclipse is the earth eclipsing the moon.

Yue4 shi2 nai3  di4 qiu2 ying3 zi luo4 zai4 yue4 qiu2 shang4

 

中國在前蘇聯 中亞幾個共和國 的影響力 超越俄國

China’s influence eclipses Russia’s across former Soviet republics of central Asia

Zhong guo2 zai4 qian2 su lian2  zhong ya4 ji3 ge gong4 he2 guo2  de ying2

xiang3 li4 chao yue4 e4 guo2

 

在音樂藝術上  這位閃亮的年輕鋼琴家 他的老師 更傑出

The brilliant young pianist now eclipsed even his own mentor in musical

artistry. (= to be better than) 

zai4 yin yue4 yi4 shu4 shang4   zhe4 wei4 shang3 liang4 de nian2 qing gang qin2 jia   bi3  ta de lao3 shi  geng4 jie2 chu

 

一些地方迫切問題 大問題如國家經濟 更重要

Some burning local issues eclipse bigger concerns such as national economy.

Yi4 xie di4 fang po4 qie4 wen4 ti2   bi3   ta4 wen4 ti2 ru2 guo2 jia jing ji4   geng4 zhong4 yao4

 

 

 

 

 

September 24, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

to go viral (vi):

在媒體上迅速傳開

Zai4 mei2 ti3 shang4 xun4 su4 chan2 kai

 

to go viral (vi): to spread rapidly and widely by person-to-person electronic communication via media such as the Internet, e-mail, and the like.

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg goes viral.     

 

Example:

候選人不當言論的鏡頭 在幾分鐘內 迅速傳開

Footage (scenes) of the candidate’s off-color remarks went viral within minutes. (off-color = of doubtful propriety or taste)

Hou4 xuan3 ren2 bu4 dang4 yan2 lun4 de jing4 tou2   zai4 ji3 fen zhong nei4  xun4 su4 chuan2 kai

 

此字始於西班牙 迅速傳開 至世界其他地區 縱使尚未傳遍 整個銀河系

The word started in Spain but quickly went viral, spreading to the rest of the globe, if not yet the rest of the Milky Way.

Ci3 zi4 shi3 yü2 xi ban ya2   dan4 xun4 su4 chuan2 kai   zhi4 shi4 jie4 qi2 ta di4 qü   zong4 shi3 shang4 wei4 chuan2 pian4 zheng3 ge yin2 he2 xi4

 

由數位相機照出來的影片 迅速在 Internet上傳開

A video produced by a digital camera went viral on the Internet.

You2 shu4 wei4 xiang4 ji zhao4 chu lai2 de ying3 pian4  xun4 su4 zai4  wang3 lu3 shang4 chuan2 kai

 

 

 

 

 

September 23, 2013 (Monday)

 

to grandstand (vi):

行為愛現以給看官深刻印象 (通常說成 作秀)

Xing2 wei2 ai4 xian4 yi2 gei3 kan4 guan shen ke4 yin4 xiang4 (tong chang2 shuo cheng2 zuo4 xio4)

 

grandstand (n):

可容納數千數萬觀眾的看台

Ke3 rong2 na4 shu4 qian shu4 wan4 guan zhong4 de kan4 tai2

 

to grandstand (vi): to conduct oneself showily or ostentatiously in an attempt to impress onlookers

grandstand (n): a terraced block of seats in a stadium, racetrack, parade route, etc , which provide a grandstand (unimpeded) view for the spectators

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy grandstands.     

 

Example:

日本無誠意 只是show而已

Japan is not sincere and genuine but merely grandstanding.

Ri4 ben3 wu2 cheng2 yi4   zhi3 shi4 zuo4 xio4  er2 yi3

 

只要能達她的目的 這位參議員show不遲疑

The senator doesn’t hesitate to grandstand if it makes her points.

Zhi3 yao4 neng2 da2 ta de mu4 di4   zhe4 wei4 can yi4 yuan2 zuo4 xio4 bu4 chi2 yi2

 

此非理由定(聯邦政府)舉債上限 卻是理由給政客們有機會show.

This is no reason to have a debt ceiling other than to give politicians a chance to grandstand.

Ci3 fei  li3 you2 ding4 (lian2 bang zheng4 fu3) jü3 zhai4 shang4 xian4  que4 shi4 li3 you2 gei3 zheng4 ke4 men2 you3 ji huei4  zuo4 xio4

 

 

 

 

 

September 22, 2013 (Sunday)

 

to batten down the hatches (vt)(成語):

準備應變

Zhun3 bei4 yin4 bian4

 

to batten down the hatches (an idiom): Literally, (used as a command in the navy) to prepare for a storm by fastening down canvas over doorways and hatches (openings) with strips of wood called battens; figuratively, to prepare to meet an emergency or face a great difficulty.

 

Sentence pattern:

batten down the hatches/batten down one’s hatches

 

Example:

Usagi 颱風來襲PRC 準備應變 希望有好運!

China battens down the hatches and crosses fingers as typhoon Usagi strikes. (to keep one’s fingers crossed = to wish for good luck or success)

Usagi tai2 feng lai2 xi2  PRC zhun3 bei4 yin4 bian4  xi wang4 you2 hao3 yuan4

 

大選前 政府必須準備應變

The government must batten down its hatches before the election.

Ta4 xuan3 qian2  zheng4 fu3 bi4 xü zhun3 bei4 yin4 bian4

 

 

 

 

 

September 21, 2013 (Saturday) 

 

to foil (vt):

挫敗(某人/某事)

Cuo4 bai4 (mou3 ren2/mou2 shi4)

 

to foil (vt): to prevent from achieving a goal/to frustrate/to thwart/to balk

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy foils sy else/to foil an attempt, scheme, effort, robbery, etc.    

 

Example:

to foil sy:

鑽石店員工們 打敗(制服)搶匪 

Diamond store staff foiled robbers  (= to defeat/to repulse)

Zuan4  shi2 dian4 yuan2 gong men2   da3 bai4 (zhi4 fu2)  qiang2 fei3

 

to foil an attempt:

效忠部隊 打垮 了他推翻政府的企圖

Loyal troops foiled his attempt to overthrow the government.

Xiao4 zhong bu4 duei4   ta2 kua3  le ta tuei fan zheng fu3 de qi4 tu2

 

to foil a scheme etc.:
他使 陰謀流產

He foiled the plot or scheme (= to bring to naught/to make ineffectual/thwart)

Ta shi3  yin mou2 liu2 chan3

 

to foil an effort:

搶救沙灘上的鯨魚 努力 失敗

The rescue efforts to save beached whale was foiled.

Qiang3 jiou4 sha tan shang4 de jing yü2  de nu3 li4  shi bai4 le

 

to foil sg:

政變流產/搶劫失敗

The coup was foiled/the robbery was foiled.

Zheng4 bian4 liu2 chan3/qiang3 jie2 shi bai4

 

使 陰謀流產
He foiled the plot or scheme (= to make ineffectual) 
ta shi3  yin mou2 liu2 chan3

 

 

 

 

 

September 20, 2013 (Friday)

 

to brook (vt):

(不能)忍受

(bu4 neng2) ren3 shou4

 

to brook (vt): to put up with (sg painful or difficult) /to endure/to tolerate/to stand/to bear/to abide/to take/to suffer (usually used in negative constructions)

 

Sentence pattern:

to brook no interference, etc. (used in a negative)

Sy will not brook anything.     

 

Example:

不容別人干預他的計畫

He would brook no interference with his plans.

Ta bu4 rong2 bie2 ren2 gan yü4 ta de ji4 hua4

 

總統立場堅定 記者會上不容發問

The president is so entrenched in his position he brook no questions in the press conference.

Zong2 tong3 li4 chang3 jian ding4   ji4 zhe3 huei4 shang4  bu4 rong3  fa wen4

 

他們絕不容干預

They never would brook interference.

Ta men2 jue2 bu4 rong2 gan yü4

 

不容我的員工侮辱我

I will not brook insults from my own employees.

Wo3 bu4 rong2  wo3 de yuan2 gong wu3 ru4 wo3

 

 

 

 

 

September 18, 2013 (Wednesday)

to mend (vt, vi)(IV):

改善個人道德行為

Gai3 shan4 ge4 ren2 dao4 de2 xing2 wei2

 

to mend (vt, vi)(IV): to improve in manners or morals

 

Sentence pattern:

to mend one’s ways or manners   

 

Example:  

指導他改善 舉止

Counsel him to mend his ways. (= to improve one’s behavior)

Zhi3 dao3 ta gai3 shan4   jü3 zhi2

 

年輕人 你最好 改改你的行為

Young man, you had better mend your manners.

Nian2 qing ren2   ni3 zuei4 hao3   gai2 gai3 ni3 de xing2 wei2

 

改邪歸正 永遠不遲

It’s never too late to mend. (a proverb)(= to improve morally)

Gai3 xie2 guei zheng4   yong3 yuan3 bu4 chi2

 

拯救國人的道德行為 永遠不遲

It’s never too late to mend the nation.

Zheng3 jiou4 guo2 ren2 de dao4 de2 xing2 wei2   yong2 yuan3 bu4 chi2

 

此惡人乃他們心腹 他們正在拯救 他的道德行為

They’re mending a bad man who is dear to their tender bosoms.

Ci3 e4 ren2   nai3 ta men2 xing fu4   ta men2 zheng4 zai4 zheng3 jiou4   ta de dao4 de2 xing2 wei2

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 17, 2013 (Tuesday)  

to  mend (vi, vt)(III):

康復/痊癒(vi); 治癒(vt)

Kang fu4/quan2 yü4; zhi4 yü4

 

to mend (vi, vt)(III): to improve (vi) in health/to heal (vi)/to recover from an illness; to restore to health/to cure (vt, vi)to recover one’s health

 

Sentence pattern:

to mend injury, etc./Injury mends.    

 

Example:

傷口 痊癒

The injury mends. (vi)(= to heal) 

Shang kou3  quan2 yü4

 

手術後 她的手臂慢慢痊癒

Her arm mended slowly after surgery.

Shou3 shu4 hou4   ta de shou3 bi4 man4 man4 quan2 yü4

 

骨頭完全康復之前

before the bone was fully mended  

gu3 tou2 wan2 qiuan2 kang fu4 zhi zhong

 

時間會治癒 斷了的骨頭

Time will mend (vt) the broken bone.

Shi2 jian huei4 zhi4 yü4   duan4 le de gu3 tou2

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 16, 2013 (Monday)

to mend (vt, vi)(II):

改善(某事/)

Gai3 shan4 (mou3 shi4/wu4)

 

to mend (vt, vi)(II): to improve or remedy a condition or a state of affairs; to get better/to improve (vi)

 

Sentence pattern:

to mend sg

Sg mends.     

 

Example:

有錯誤的文章

to mend a corrupt text (= to correct/to remove the defects of)

gai3 you3 cuo4 wu4 de wen2 zhang

 

嘗試循法律途徑 改善事件

to make an attempt to mend matters by a law

chang2 shi4 xun2 fa3 lü4 tu2 jing4  gai3 shan4 shi4 jian4

 

她的麻煩 開始改善中

Her troubles were beginning to mend. (= to grow better)

Ta de ma2 fan2  kai shi3 gai3 shan4 zhong

 

鬱卒 和缺乏生氣 明顯改善中

Depression and lack of spirit mended visually

yü4 zu2  han4 que fa2 sheng qi4   ming2 xian3 gai3 shan4 zhong

 

 

 

 

 

September 15. 2013 (Sunday)

to mend (vt)(I):

修補

xiu bo3

to mend (vt): to repair/to free from faults or defects/to make sg whole or sound that has been broken, torn, or injured

 

Sentence pattern:

to mend sg concrete  

 

Example:

這些道路 從未修過/市政府有需要 這幾條道路

The roads were never mended/the town needs to mend these roads..

Zhe4 xie dao4 lu4   cong2 wei4 xiu guo4/shi4 zheng4 fu3 you3 xü yao4  xiu zhe4 ji3 tiao2 dao4 lu4

 

漁夫修補他們的破漁網

Fishermen were mending their nets.

yü2 fu xiu bu3 ta men2 de po4 yü2 wang3

 

好了襯衫

She has finished mending the shirt.

Ta bu3 hao3 le chen4 shan

 

美滿婚姻 有助於修補 破碎的心

A good marriage will help mend broken hearts. (= to repair)

Mei3 man3 hun yin   you3 zhu4 yü2  xiu bu3  po4 suei4 de xin

 

 

 

 

 

September 14. 2013 (Saturday)

on the mend (adj., adv.):

(健康) 康復中; (狀況)改善中

(jian4 kang) kanf fu4 zhong; (zhuang4 kuang4) gai3 shan4 zhong

 

on the mend (adi., adv.): 康復中recovering (vi) from an illness/recovering (vt) one’s health/recovering (vi) in health); 改善中improving or getting better

mend (n): repair; improvement

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy/sg is on the mend. 

 

Example:

我康復期間 請假不上班

I took a leave of absence from work while I was on the mend.

Wo3 kang fu4 qi2 jian  qing3 jia4 bu4 shang4 ban

 

父子斷絕的關係  正在改善中

The breach between father and son is on the mend. (breach = a severance of friendly relations)

Fu4 zi3 duan4jue2 de guan xi4  zheng4 zai4 gai3 shan4 zhong

 

失業人數減少 (國家)經濟明顯改善中

With fewer people out of work, the economy is clearly on the mend. 

Shi yie4 ren3 shu4 jian2 shao3 (guo2 jia) jing ji4 ming2 xian3 gai3 shang4 zhong

 

 

 

 

 

September 3, 2013 (Tuesday)

to wean (-ee-)(vt)(I):

斷奶; 中斷(習慣等); 長期依賴(某物)

Duan4 nai3; zhong duan4 (xi2 guan4 deng3); chang2 qi2 yi lai4 (mou3 wu4)

 

to wean (vt): 斷奶 to cause (a child or other young animal) to replace mother’s milk by other nourishment; 中斷(習慣等) to cause to desert former habits, pursuits (followed by from or off); 長期習慣於(某物) to accustom sy to sg from childhood (followed by on)

 

Sentence pattern:

to wean sy from/off sg

to wean sy on sg/sy is weaned on sg

 

Example:

為嬰兒斷奶 或斷奶瓶

to wean a baby from/off mother’s milk or breastfeeding or bottle

wei4 ying er2 duan4 nai3   huo4 duan4 nai3 ping2

 

醫師開 methadone 為病人戒斷 heroin

Methadone is prescribed to wean addicts from heroin.

Yi shi kai  methadone   wuei4 ping4 ren2 jie4 duan4 heroin

 

老化 使我們 逐漸斷了 對生命的喜愛

aging process weans us gradually from our fondness of life

lao3 hua4   shi3 wuo3 men2   zhu2 jian4 duan4 le   duei4 sheng ming4 de xi3 ai4

 

省吃節用 已斷了我們豐富的點心

The need to reduce had weaned us from rich disserts.

Sheng3 chi jie2 yong4   yi3 duan4 le wuo3 men2fong fu4 de dian3 xin

 

斷藥

being weaned off the medication (= to discontinue)

duan4 yao4

 

該國將中斷糧食救濟

The country is to wean itself off food aid.

Gai guo2 jiang zhong duan4 liang2 shi2 jiou4 ji4

 

做為鋼琴家 我習慣於 巴哈 莫扎特, 我花了半輩子 才學會欣賞 李斯特的 戲劇化曲風

As a pianist weaned on Bach and Mozart, it took me half of a lifetime to learn to appreciate the histrionics of Liszt

Zuo4 wei2 gang qin2 jia   wuo3 xi2 guan4 yü2   ba ha   han4  mo4 zha te4,  wuo3 hua le ban4 bei4 zi   cai2 xue2 huei4 xin shang3   li3 si te4 de   xi4 zü4 hua4 qü3 fong

 

你既然習慣於 德州 chili, 那走一趟Cincinnati 你會大開眼界

If you were weaned on Texas-style chili, then a trip to Cincinnati is an eye-opening experience.

Ni3 ji4 ran2 xi2 guan4 yü2  de2 zhou  chili, na4 zou3 yi tang4 Cincinnati  ni3 huei4 ta4 kai yan3 jie4

 

習慣於使用網際網路 找資料的學生

students weaned on the Internet for research

xi2 guan4 yü2 shi3 yong4 wang3 zi4 wang3 lu4   zhao3 zi liao4 de xue2 sheng

 

一位習慣於古典作品 的聰明學生

a brilliant student weaned on the classics

yi wei4 xi2 guan4 yü2  gu2 dian3 zuo4 pin3  de cong ming2 xue2 sheng

 

 

 

 

 

August 27, 2013 (Tuesday)

gaffe (gaf)(n):

社交上的言行失禮/說錯話; 非故意之錯誤

She4 jiao shang4 de yan2 xing2 shi li3/shuo cuo4 hua4; fei gu4 yi4 zhi cuo4 wu4

 

gaffe (n): a marked social or diplomatic blunder, especially a tactless remark/faux pas/a socially improper or unsuitable act or remark; 非故意之錯誤 an unintentional departure from truth or accuracy/a noticeable mistake   

 

faux pas (foh pah)(n): a social blunder/a slip in etiquette/indiscretion

 

Sentence pattern:

to commit or make a gaffe   

 

Example:

那是公關上的失禮, 雖然嚴重, 但非 政策有錯誤

But that was a public relations gaffe, albeit a serious one, not a policy error.

Na4 shi4 gong guan shang4 de shi li3, suei ran2 yan2 zhong4, dan4 fei   zheng4 ce4 you3 cuo4 wu4

 

她開始喝 洗手水時 大了

She committed a huge gaffe when she started drinking from the finger bowel.

Ta kai shi3 he   xi2 shou2 shuei3 shi2   ta qiou3 ta4 le

 

候選人辯論 說錯話

the candidate’s debate gaffe (= a tactless remark)

hou4 xuan3 ren2 bian4 lun  shuo cuo4 hua4

 

所謂(競選)辯論 其實是在看哪位候選人 最常說錯話

so-called debates, which were mainly about seeing which candidate made the most gaffes  

suo3 wei4 (jing4 xuan3)bian4 lun4  qi2 shi2 shi4 zai4 kan4 na4 wei4 hou4 xuan3 ren2   zuei4 chang2 shuo cuo4 hua4

 

和所有報紙一樣 這個報 也犯了無心之誤

Like all newspapers, it sometimes commits a gaffe. (= an unintentional error)

Han4 suo2 you3 bao4 zhi3 yi yang4   zhe4 ge bao4   ye3 fan4 le wu2 xin zhi wu4

 

 

 

August 24, 2013 (Saturday)

 

Kernel (kur-)(n):

(原義) 核仁 (果實種子或果核硬殼內較軟可吃的部分)/五穀整粒種

; (引申)(某事物之)核心或精髓

(yuan2 yi4) he2 ren2 (guo3 shi2 zhong3 zi  huo4   guo3 he2 ying4 ke2 nei4 jiao4 ruan3 ke3 chi de bu4 fen4)/wu2 gu3 zheng3 li4 zhong3 zi; (yin3 zhen)(mou3 shi4 wu4 zhi) he2 xin   huo4   jing suei3

 

Kernel (n): Literally, the softer, edible central part of a seed, fruit stone, or nut/the inner portion of a seed within the integuments (-teg-); figuratively, the central or essential part of something; core; gist  

 

Sentence pattern:

the kernel of something

the kernel of an organization

 

Example:

桃子的核仁玉米/小麥 大麥

peach kernel; a kernel of corn/wheat and barley kernels (= the whole grain of a cereal)

tao2 zi de  he2 ren2;  yü4 mi3 li4/xiao3 mai4 li4   han4   ta4 mai4 li4

 

他的領導 整個組織之核心

His leadership is the kernel of the organization.

Ta de ling3 dao3   nai3   zheng3 ge4 zu3 zhi zhi   he2 xin

 

可辨認的真理之精髓 智慧的結晶 必須尊敬

A kernel of recognizable truth and a kernel of wit and wisdom command respect

Ke3 bian4 ren4 de zhen li3 zhi   jing suei3   han4   zhi4 huei4 de   jie2 jing   bi4 xü zuen jing4

 

你爭辯的 核心概念 好像是說  該國分裂無法避免

The kernel of your argument seems to be the inevitability of the division of that nation 

Ni3 zheng bian4 de   he2 xin gai4 nian4   hao3 xiang4 shi4 swhuo   gai guo2 fen lie4 wu2 fa3 bi4 mian3

 

 

 

August 23, 2013 (Friday)

 

Niche (nich or nish) (n)(I):

(原義)(擺神像或其他飾物之)壁龕; 某種動植物品種生長之地; (引申)最適合某人或某事物之處所, 職位等, 即棲()身之處;一席之地; 小而專精之市場

(yuan2 yi4)(Bai3 shen2 xiang4 huo4 qi2 ta shi4 wu4 zhi) bi4 kan; mou3 zhong3 dong4 zhi2 wu4 pin2 zhong3 sheng zhang3 zhi di4;  (yin3 shen) zuei4 shi4 he2 mou3 een2 huo4 mou3 shi4 wu4 zhi chu4 suo3, zhi2 wei4 deng3,  ji2 qi (an) shen zhi chu4; yi xi2 zhi di4; xiao3 er2 zhuan jing zhi shi4 chang3

 

Niche (n): Literally, a shallow recess or hollowed space in the wall for a statue or other ornament; a habitat of a plant or animal species; figuratively, a place, employment, position, activity for which a person or thing is best fitted or suited; a niche, a niche market, or a market niche is a small, specialized market

 

Niche (a): 小而專精 small but specialized

 

Sentence pattern:

to find one’s niche in the world

a market niche

a niche group/a niche application

 

 

Niche (n)/niche (a)(continued)(II):  

Example: 

幾位聖賢的雕像 擺滿了寺院走廊牆上的 神龕

Statues of various saints occupy the niches lining the abbey’s many corridors.

Ji3 wei4 sheng4 xian2 de diao xiang4   bai3 man3 le  si4 yuan4 zou3 .lang2 qiang2 shang4 de  shen2 kan

 

這小動物棲息之地 是澳洲東部水域

The platypus’s niche is the waters of eastern Australia. (= the habitat for a plant or animal species)

Zhe4 xiao3 dong wu4  qi xi2 zhi di4   shi4 ao4 zhou dong bu4 shuei3 yü4

 

他在政界 找到 一席之地

He found his niche in politics (= a place a person is best suited)

Ta zai4 zheng4 jie4   zhao3 dao4  yi4 xi2 zhi di4

 

她終於找到了 安身立命之所 當起老師

She finally found her niche as a teacher.

Ta zhong yü2 zhao3 dao4 le   ta   an shen li4 ming4 zhi suo3   dang qi3 lao3 shi

 

高中畢業後 我找到 安身立命之所

I found a niche for myself after high school.

Gao zhong bi4 ye4 hou4   wuo3 zhao3 dao4   an shen li4 ming4 zhi suo3

 

 

 

Niche (n)/niche (a)(continued)(III):  

Example

小而專精之市場

a market niche/a niche market (= a specialized market)

xiao3 er2 zhuan jing zhi shi4 chang3

 

有些公司 專精於 這個 幾年前很少存在的 特殊市場, 他們說 他們以等比級數擴張

Companies that specialize in this niche, which barely existed a few years ago, say they’re expanding exponentially. 

You3 xie gong si   zhuan jing yü2   zhe4 ge   ji3 nian2 qian2 hen2 shao3 cun2 zai4 de   te4 shu shi4 chang3,   ta men2 shuo   ta men2 yi3 deng2 bi3 ji2 shu4  kuo4 chang

 

多年來  演藝保險業 而多金的特殊市場

For years entertainment insurance has been small but profitable niche. (= a small specialized market/a distinct segment of a market)

Duo nian2 lai2   yan3 yi4 bao2 xian3 ye4   nai3   xiao3 er2 duo jin de    te4 shu shi4 chang3

 

但是 由熱生電的物質 效率不足以 用於 特殊的小用途之外

But thermoelectric materials have not been efficient enough to move beyond niche applications (= small but specific)

Dan4 shi4   you2 re4 sheng dian4 de wu4 zhi2   xiao4 lü4 bu4 zu2 yi3   yong4 yü2   te4 shu de xiao3 yong4 tu2

 

它意味著 過於重視 幾個 往往是 特殊的小團體

It implies too much weight to what are often niche groups. (= a small specialized group)  

Ta yi4 wei4 zhe  guo4 yü2 zhong4 shi4  ji3 ge   wang2 wang3 shi4   te4 shu de xiao3 tuan2 ti3

 

 

 

 

August 20, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

Rift (n):

(原義)狹長裂縫 斷層; (引申之義)(因意見 利益之分歧而)分裂

(yuan2 yi4) xia2 chang2 lie4 feng4   huo4   duan4 ceng2; (yin3 shen zhi yi4)(yin yi4 jian4 li4 yi4 zhi fen qi2 er2) fen  lie4

 

Rift (n): 狹窄裂縫或 斷層Literally, a narrow break, crack or other opening made by cleaving or splitting/a fissure/a cleft/a chink/a fault; a clear interval in a forest or cloud mass; 分裂figuratively, a break in friendly relations between people, nations etc. resulting from a difference in opinion, belief, or interest

 

Sentence pattern:

a rift of the earth crust or mantle

a rift between 2 persons

 

Example:

大陸地表板塊之 斷層

a continental rift/the rift of continental plates/the rift of the crust and mantle

 (= a long, narrow zone of faulting resulting from tensional stress in the earth’s crust)

Ta4 lu4 di4 biao3 ban3 kuai4 zhi   duan4 ceng2

 

海床斷裂處 火熱岩漿 從地殼 湧出

The rift in the ocean floor through which red-hot magma is squeezed up from the mantle

Hai3 chuang2 duan4 lie4 chu4   huo3 re4 yan2 jiang   cong2 di4 ke2   yun chu

 

小湖泊 位於  稍顯狹長的 地表斷裂處 火山曾在此爆發

The small lake sits in the slightly elongate rift area where the eruption occurred.

Xiao3 hu2 bo2   wei4 yü2   shao xiang3 xia2 chang2 de   di4 biao3 duan4 lie4 chu4   huo3 shan ceng2 zai4 ci3 bao4 fa

 

地表裂痕所造成的峽谷 由於兩邊 向外移動 峽谷 終於 低於海平面 氾濫成災

As the 2 sides of a rift valley diverge, the valley eventually falls below sea level and floods.

Di4 biao3 lie4 hen2 suo3 zao4 cheng2 de xia2 gu3   yiu2 yü2 liang3 bian   xiang4 wai4 yi2 dong   xia2 gu3   zhong yü2   di yü2 hai3 ping2 mian4   fan4 lan4 cheng2 zai

 

雲縫 他看到太陽

He saw the sun through a rift in the clouds (= a gap between 2 cloud masses)

Yun2 feng4 jian   ta kan4 dao4 tai4 yang2

 

二人 二國之間的 裂痕

a rift between 2 people or 2 nations (= a break in friendly relations)

er4 ren2   huo4   er4 guo2 zhi jian de   lie4 hen2

 

數月後 裂痕 痊癒  友誼 好轉

the rift healed after a few months and friendship returned to good standing.

Shu4 yue4 hou4   lie4 hen2   quan2 yü4   you3 yi2   hao2 zhuan3

 

修補 貧國 和富國 之間的 裂痕

to repair the rift between rich and poor countries

xiu bu3   pin2 guo2   han4   fu4 guo2   zhi jian de   lie4 hen2

 

企業 稅捐機構 之間 擴大中的 裂痕

the increasing rift between companies and the tax authorities

qi4 ye4  han4  shuei4 juan ji gou4   zhi jian   kuo4 ta4 zhong de   lie4 hen2

 

 

 

 

 

August 18, 2013 (Sunday)

 

Mindset (n):

牢不可破的心態, 思維; 習性

Lao2 bu4 ke3 po4 de  xin tai4¸si wei2; xi2 xing4

 

Mindset (n): a fixed mental attitude, disposition, inclination or a habit/a fixed state of mind which is difficult to alter/the ideas or attitudes of a person which are difficult to alter/habits of mind formed  by previous experience/the direction of thinking

 

Sentence pattern:

a person’s mindset

 

Example:

我們的教育體制  影響年輕人的 思維 至巨

Our educational system has been the most powerful influence in determining the mindset of our youth. (= the direction of thinking). 

Wulo3 men2 de jiao4 yü4 ti3 zhi4  ying2 xiang3 nian2 qing ren2 de   si wei2   zhi4 jü4

 

聯邦檢察官們 會有更多人改變 思維

A mindset change will spread among the prosecutors in the state and nation.

Zhou han4 lian2 bang jian3 cha2 guan men2  huei4 you3 geng4 duo ren2 gai3 bian4  qi2 si wei2

 

我們球隊和教練的 心態

the mindset of our head coach and our team

wuo3 men2 qiu2 duei4 han4 jiao4 lian4 de   xin tai4

 

太多人有的 錯誤心態

the wrong kind of mindset that far too many people have

tai4 duo ren2 you3 de   cuo4 wu4 xin tai4

 

該國人民的 心態

the mindset in this country

gai guo2 ren2 min2 de   xin tai4

 

他們的行為 顯示 他們仍 囿於帝國心態

Their behavior is a sign that they are still imprisoned by their imperial mindset.

Ta men2 de xing2 wei2  xian3 shi4   ta men2 reng2   you4 yü2 di4 guo2 xin tai4

 

過去你如何 走過 那種 心態

What did you do in moving past that mindset?

Guo4 qü4 ni3 ru2 he2  zou3 guo4  na4 zhong3   xin tai4

 

他有 漫不經心的 習性

He has a mindless mindset.

Ta you3  man4 bu4 jing xin de  xi2 xing4

 

一種文化習性 其他方面 做改變

to change along with the other aspects of a cultural mindset

yi yi4 zhong3 wen2 hua4 xi2 xing4  de  qi2 ta fang mian4  zuo4 gai3 bian4

 

 

 

 

 

August 16, 2013 (Friday)

 

Nemesis (n) (II):

勁敵(= 無法打敗的對手); 剋星/天敵(= 能毀掉或搞垮一個人的人或物); 無法克服之事物

Jing4 di2 (= wu2 fa3 da3 bai4 de duei4 shou3); ke4 xing/tian di2 (= neng2 huei3 diao4  huo4 gao3 kua3 yi ge4 ren2 de ren2 huo4 wu4);  wu2 fa3 ke4 fu2 zhi shi4 wu4

 

Nemesis (n) (II): 勁敵an opponent or rival whom a person cannot best or overcome; 剋星/天敵one’s nemesis is that which will bring on one’s destruction or downfall; 無法克服之事物 sg that one cannot conquer or achieve

 

Sentence pattern:

one’s nemesis

nemesis of sg

 

Example:

棒球隊 敗於宿敵 第一流投球

The baseball team was defeated by the first-rate pitching of its old nemesis. (= a formidable and usually victorious rival or opponent)  

bang4 qiou2 duei4  bai4 yü2 su4 di2   di4 yi liu2 tou2 qiou2

 

他將和宿敵比賽 爭總冠軍

He will be playing his old nemesis for the championship.

Ta jiang han4 su4 di2 bi3 sai4   zheng zong3 guan4 jun  

 

不講理 是民主制度的  剋星 (即不講理 毀了民主) 理由是 好政府 要靠 選民智慧

Irrationality is the nemesis of democracy, for good government depends upon the wisdom of the electorate. (= a source of harm or misfortune)

bu4 jiang2 li3   shi4 min2 zhu3 zhi4 du4 de  ke4 xing (ji2 bu4 jiang2 li3   huei3 .le min2 zhu3)  li3 yiu2 shi4   hao3 zheng4 fu3  yao4 kao4  xuan3 min2 zhi4 huei4

 

危機 在於 民主制度 一再受傷害 (即一再 被毀)

The crisis is the recurrent nemesis of democracy. (= an inevitable result)

Wei2 ji  zai4 yü2   min2 zhu3 zhi4 du4   yi zai4 shou4  shang hai4 (ji2 yi zai4 bei4 huei3)

 

隨便相信他人 了我  (即隨便相信他人  我的 剋星)

Uncritical trust is my nemesis. (= my source of harm or ruin)

Suei2 bian4 xiang xin4 ta ren2   huei3 le wuo3 (ji2 Suei2 bian4 xiang xin4 ta ren2  shi4 wuo3 de ke4 xing)

 

毛主席 蔣中正總統之 剋星 (即毛主席 毀了 蔣總統)

Chairman Mao was the nemesis of President Chiang kai-sheck.

Mao2 zhu3 xi2   nai3   Chiang3 Zhong Zheng4 zong2 tong3 zhi  ke4 xing (ji2 Mao2 zhu3 xi2   huei3 le   Chiang3 zong2 tong3)

 

扁幅俠 Joker 之主要剋星  總是 破解 Joker 的詭計

Batman is the Joker’s main nemesis and always foils his wicked plots. (= one who inflicts punishment in return for offense/avenger/punisher/castigator/chastiser)

 

許多被追殺的人 在街上  追殺者 面前 倒下

Many a pursued man fell before his nemesis in the streets. (= one that inflicts retribution)

xü3 duo bei4 zhuei sha de ren2   zai4 jie shang4   zhuei sha zhe3  mian4 qian2  dao3 xia4

 

Nemesis引申之義 復仇者

By extension, a nemesis is an avenger. (= one who inflicts punishment in return for offense/avenger/punisher)

Nemesis  yin3 shen zhi yi4   shi4   fu4 chou2 zhe3

 

學業考試 是我 無法克服之難 (即 我的剋星)

The performance test proved to be my nemesis. (= sg that one cannot conquer or achieve)

xue2 ye4 kao3 shi4   shi4 wuo3   wu2 fa3 ke4 fu2 zhi nan2

 

 

 

 

August 15, 2013 (Thursday)

 

Nemesis (n) (I):

來自神的懲罰 (= 報應); (對負面行為的) 懲罰

Lai2 zi4 shen2 de cheng3 fa2 (= bao4 ying4); (duei4 fu4 mian4 xing2 wei2 de) cheng3 fa2

 

Nemesis (n) (I): 報應divine retribution punishment/an act of retributive justice; (對負面行為的) 懲罰an act of retribution or punishment for a crime or offense

 

Sentence pattern:

a person’s nemesis

nemesis of sg

 

Example:

在古典神話裡 Nemesis 乃司 公平懲罰 希臘女神

In classical mythology, Nemesis is the Greek goddess of vengeance or retributive justice or divine retribution.

Zai4 gu2 dian3 shen2 hua4 li3   Nemesis nai3 si  gong ping2cheng3 fa2 zhi  xi la4 nü3 shen2

 

Nemesis引申之義 復仇者

By extension, a nemesis is an avenger. (= one who inflicts punishment in return for offense/avenger/punisher/castigator/chastiser)

Nemesis  yin3 shen zhi yi4   shi4   fu4 chou2 zhe3

 

不講理 報應 是自我毀滅

This propensity to self-destruction is the nemesis of irrationality. (= an inevitable result)  

bu4 jiang2 li3   de bao4 ying4   shi4  zi4 wuo3 huei3 mie4

 

放逐 曾經一度是 不遵守 性行為風俗習慣者 懲罰

Social ostracism (= banishment) was once society’s nemesis for those who defies its sexual mores (mores = customs and manners of a social group that serve as moral guidelines)

fang4 zhu2   ceng2 jing yi du4 shi4   bu4 zun shou3   xing4 xing2 wei2 feng su2 xi2 guan4 zhe3   de cheng3 fa2

 

無論在個人或社區 過分堅持自己的主張  曾被認為 僅在挑起 懲罰

whether in the individual or in the community, overweening self-assertion was regarded as justly provoking nemesis. (= an act or effect of retribution or

punishment)

wu2 lun4 zai4 ge4 ren2 huo4 she4 qü   guo4 fen4 jian chi2 zi4 ji3 de zhu3 zhang   ceng2 bei4 ren4 wei2   jin3 zai4 tiao qi3  cheng3 fa2

 

 

 

 

 

August 12, 2012 (Monday)

 

Farfetched/far-fetched/far fetched (a):

(原義) 自遠方帶來; (引申之義) 不可能/太牽強/太離譜

 

Farfetched (a): (原義) 自遠方帶來Literally, brought from a distance or afar; (引申之義) 不可能/太牽強/太離譜figuratively, improbable in nature/unlikely/being only remotely connected/not based on probable or reasonable relationships/not naturally pertinent/forced/strained

Farfetchedness (n)

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg is farfetched.

 

Example:

那些日子裡 柑橘和 來自遠方的佳餚  確是稀罕之物

Oranges and other farfetched delicacies were rarities in those days

Na4  xie ri4 zi li3   gan jü2   han4  lai2 zi4 yuan3 fan de jia yiao2   que4 shi4 si han4 zhi wu4

 

戲的主題 太牽強

a farfetched theme for a play

si4 de zhu3 ti2   tai4 qian qiang2

 

點子 太離譜/推測 太不可能

farfetched ideas or notions/farfetched speculations

dian3 zi  tai4 li2 pu3/tuei ce4   tai4 bu4 ke3 neng2  

 

 不可能

It’s a farfetched possibility.

Na4  bu4 ke3 neng2

 

他的立場 似乎 太離譜 不合理

His stand seemed farfetched and unreasonable.

Ta de li4 chang3   si4 hu   tai4 li2 pu3   bu4 he2 li3

 

這理由 太不合理 不能當真

The argument is too farfetched to take seriously

Zhe4 li3 you2    tai4 bu4 he2 li3   bu4 neng2 dang zhen

 

我們的社會深深覺得 人類絕跡 不是不可能

Our society is steeped in an uneasy awareness that human extinction is not a particularly farfetched possibility.

Wuo3 men2 de she4 huei4 shen shen jue2 de   ren2 lei4 jue2 ji   bu4 shi4 bu4 ke3 neng2

 

你把理由都列出來  不管有多離譜

List every reason you identify, no matter how farfetched it may seem. 

Ni3 ba3 li3 you2 dou lie4 chu lai2   bu4 guan3 you3 duo li2 pu3

 

 

 

 

 

August 10, 2013 (Sunday)

 

To zero in on (vt, vi)

對準(目標); 專心於(某事/); 集中於(一處)

 

To zero in on (vt, vi): 對準(目標) Literally, to aim a weapon precisely at or on a target of sg/ to adjust fire on a specific target/to concentrate firepower of artillery etc. on the exact range of a target; 專心於(某事/) figuratively, to direct one’s attention to/to focus on/to concentrate on a person or thing;  集中於(一處) to converge on/to close in on/to move toward the same point

 

To zero in on (vt, vi): literally, to bring a weapon to bear on a target/to aim a firearm at a target; figuratively, to bring attention to bear on a problem, etc./to direct one’s attention  (Informal)

 

Sentence pattern:

to zero in (vt) a weapon on sy or sg

A weapon zeroes (or zeros) in on (vi) sy or sg

to zero in on (vi) sy or sg

 

Example:

敵軍 炮火 對準 我方 十字路口 和進城道路 猛轟

The enemy zeros in (vt) artillery and mortars on all crossroads and avenues of approach (= to bring to bear on the exact range of a target)

Di2 jun  pao4 huo3   duei4 zhun3 wuo3 fan    shi2 zi4 lu4 kou3   han4   jing4 cheng2 dao4 lu4   meng3 hong

 

敵軍 炮火 對準 我方 十字路口  猛轟

An enemy battery zeroed in on (vi) the crossroad.

Di2 jun  pao4 huo3   duei4 zhun3  wuo3 fan   shi2 zi4 lu4 kou3   meng3 hong

 

這武器 務必在 固定基地上操作  敵軍可 對準攻擊

It must operate from fixed bases which the enemy can zero in (vt)(=  to concentrate firepower on the exact range of)

Zhe4 wu3 qi4   wu4 bi4 zai4 gu4 dingh4 ji di4 shang4 cao zuo4   di2 jun ke3  duei4 zhun3 gong ji2

 

將他的步槍 射程對準 100目標

to zero in (vt) his rifle at 100 yards (= to adjust the zero of/to adjust an instrument to zero value/to adjust on the exact range of a target)

jiang ta de bu4 qiang   she4 cheng2 duei4 zhun3  100 ma3  mu4 biao

 

調查員們注意力集中於 嫌犯

Investigators are zeroing in on (vi) the suspect.

The police zeroed in on the site of the crime. (= to converge on)(Informal)

Diao4 cha2 yuan2 men2  zhu4 yi4 li4 ji2 zhong yü2  xian2 fan4

 

他們的注意力 集中於 最後一群擊兵

They zeroed in on the last snipers.

Ta men2 de  zhu4 yi4 li4 ji2 zhong yü2  zuei4 hou4 yi qun2   jü ji2 bing

 

我們的注意力 務必集中於 各成分原料的準確量

We must zero in on the exact combination of ingredients

Wuo3 men2 de zhu4 yi4 li4    wu4 bi4 ji2 zhong yü2   ge4 cheng2 fen yuan2 liao4 de zhuen3 que4 liang4

 

全班的注意力 集中於 新作業

The whole class zeroed in on the new assignment.

Quan2 ban de zhu4 yi4 li4  ji2 zhong  yü2   xin zuop4 ye4

 

獵鳥狗 專心尋找  躲起來的quail 鳥群

Bird-dogs zeroing in on coveys (kuhv-ee) of hidden quail

Lie4 niao2 gou3  zhuan xin xun2 zhao3  duo3 qi3 lai2 de  niao3

 

國會反對派議員們 注意力集中於 法案

Congressional opponents zeroed in on the bill  (= to focus attention on)

Guo2 huei4 fan3 guei4 pai4 yi4 yuan2 men2  zhu4 yi4 li4 ji2 zhong yü2  fa3 an4

 

小孩們 集中於觀看 電車展示

The children zeroed in on the electric train display. (= to converge on).

Xiao3 hai2 men2 ji2 zhong yü2 guan kan4  dian4 che zhan3 shi4

 

 

 

 

August 7, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

Clairvoyance (-voi-)(n)

(超時空)直覺力 6 ( 能看到 或感覺到 5  感覺不到的 物或事)

(chao shi2 kong) zhi2 jue2 li4   huo4   di4 lio4 gan3 (ji2 neng2 kan4 dao4  huo4  gan3 jue2 dao4   wu3 guan   gan3 jue2 bu4 dao4 de  wu4 huo4 shi4)

 

Clairvoyance (n): Extrasensory perception (ESP); sixth sense; keen intuitive power; the supernatural power of perception beyond the 5 senses (the sense of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch); the power of seeing or knowing things not present to the 5 senses, or removed in space or time from natural viewing

 

Sentence pattern:

to have clairvoyance to do sg

to have clairvoyance as to sg

to have a sixth sense for/of sg

 

Example:

我不相信超時空直覺力, 但我無法解釋 他怎麼知道 我祖母 那些事

I don’t believe in clairvoyance, but I can’t explain how he knew those things about my grandmother.

Wuo3 bu4 xiang xin4  chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4, dan4 wuo3 wu2fa3 jie3 shi4   ta zen3 mo zhi dao4   wuo3 zu2 mu3 na4 xie shi4 

 

自稱 擁有超時空直覺力, 有時候 被請去 協助 尋找失蹤人口

People who c laim to have clairvoyance are sometimes asked to help locate missing persons.

Zi4 cheng   yun you3  chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4 zhe3, you3 shi2 hou4   bei4 qing3 qü4   xie2 zhu4   xun2 zhao3 shi zong ren2 kou3     

 

她冷靜鎮定 又有超時空直覺力, 她能忍受 他給她的煎熬

She has resources of calmness and clairvoyance which enable her to endure trials he engineers.

Ta leng3 jing4 zhen4 ding4   you4 you3 chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4, ta neng2 ren3 shou4  ta gei3 ta de jiang ao2  

 

她對某些事的 超時空直覺力 稟賦

Her gift of clairvoyance as to sg

Ta duei4 mou3 xie shi4de   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4   bing3 fu4

 

很少人  超時空直覺力  預料  中國驚人的成長与活力

Few people have the clairvoyance to anticipate China’s astonishing growth and vitality.

Hen2 shao3 ren2 you3   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4    yü4 liao4   zhong guo2 jing ren2 de  cheng2 zhang3 yü3 huo2 li4

 

她以某種超時空直覺力 為業

She practices clairvoyance of some sort.

Ta yi3  mou2 zhong3   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4    uei1 ye4

 

他把 故事結局 說成是 命運  把真相 說成是 超時空直覺力

He gives up narrative destination for destiny and clarification for clairvoyance.

Ta ba3  gu4 shi4 jie2 jü2   shuo cheng2 shi4   ming4 yun4    ba3 zhen xiang4   shuo cheng2 shi4   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4 

 

他自稱有第六感 能預知 何時有人會打電話給她

She claims to have a sixth sense for knowing when someone was about to call her

Ta zi4 cheng   you3   di4 lio4 gan3   neng2 yü4 zhi   he2 shi2   you3 ren2 huei4 ta3 dian4 hua4 gei3 ta

.

這製片家有第六感  能預知  大眾抗拒不了的 電影故事

The filmmaker has a sixth sense for knowing which stories the general public will find irresistible.

Zhe4 zhi4 pian4 jia   you3   di4 lio4 gan3   neng2 yü4 zhi   ta4 zhong4 kang4 jü4 bu4 liao3 de   dian4 yeng3 gu4 shi4

 

對新聞有第六感的記者們

Journalists who have a sixth sense of news

Duei4 xin wen2   you3   di4 lio4 gan3   de ji4 zhe3 men2

 

此案毫無進展 警察很洩氣  願意聽聽 一位 自稱.超時空直覺力  的美女 怎麼說

The police were discouraged about the lack of progress in the case and willing to listen to a woman claiming extrasensory perception (ESP).

Ci3 an4 hao2 wu2 jing4 zhan3   jing3 cha2 hen3 xie4 qi4    yuan4 yi4 ting ting yi wei4 zi4 cheng   you3   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4   de mei3 nü3   zen3 mo shuo

 

他的第六感 警告他要小心

His sixth sense warned him to be cautious.

Ta de   di4 lio4 gan3   jing3 gao4 ta   yao4 xiao3 xin

 

她有第六感 他們會在 地下儲藏室裡 找到它

She had a sixth sense that they would find it in the cellar. (= a sense in addition to the 5 physical senses)

Ta you3   di4 lio4 gan3   ta men2 huei4 zai4   di4 xia4 shi4 li3   zhao3 dao4 ta

 

她有超時空直覺力  自稱能看到你看不到之事物

She is a clairvoyant (n) who claims to have a clairvoyant (a) vision and power.(= a person who claims clairvoyance)

Ta you3   chao shi2 kong zhi2 jue2 li4   zi4 cheng neng2 kan4 dao4 ni3 kan4 bu4 dao4 zhi shi4 wu4

 

Note: clairaudience (n): the power of hearing sounds beyond the range of normal hearing

 

 

 

 

August 6, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

Crosscurrents (pl.)(n):

逆流 ni4 liu2; 橫流 heng2 liu2

 

Crosscurrents (pl.)(n): 橫流 Literally, a current flowing across (or traverse to) the main current; 逆流figuratively, a conflicting tendency moving counter to the usual trend (usually used in plural)

 

Sentence pattern:

A crosscurrent of sg

 

Example:

 

一股不滿的逆流

a cross current of dissent (= a countercurrent)

yi gu3 bu4 man3 de   ni4 liu2

 

社會政治上的 逆流

sociopolitical crosscurrents

she4 huei4 zheng4 zhi4  de   ni4 liu2   

 

政治逆流  搞亂了 政事

The political crosscurrents disrupt the business of government (to disrupt = to cause disorder or turmoil in)(= actions counter to the main group activity)

Zheng4 zhi4 ni4 liu2    gao3 luan4 le     zheng4 shi4

 

政治逆流  搞亂了 大會進行

The political crosscurrents disrupt the conference

Zheng4 zhi4 ni4 liu2    gao3 luan4 le   ta4 huei4 jin4 xing2

 

橫流(逆流) 乃亂流也

A crosscurrent is a type of turbulence. (= unstable flow of  a liquid or gas)

Heng2 liu2 (ni4 liu2)   nai3   luan4 liu2 ye3

 

逆流 只能緩和 但不能阻擋 中國經濟成長

Crosscurrents slow but won’t halt China’s economic growth. (Yahoo news)

Ni4 liu2  zhe3 neng2 huan3 he2   dan4 bu4 neng2 zu2 dang3   zhong guo2 jing ji4 cheng2 zhang3

 

 

 

 

August 3, 2013 (Saturday)

 

To debunk (vt): 

(以嘲笑方式) 揭穿 或 拆穿 (某概念/主張/意見之) 虛假 誇大; 否定(某事物為)不實; 說明真相

(yi3 chao2 xiao4 fang shi4) jie2 chuan    huo4   chai chuan   (mou3 gai4 nian4/zhu3 zhang/yi4 jian4 zhi)  xü jia3   huo4   kua ta4; fou3 ding4 (mou3 shi4 wu4 wei2) bu4 shi2; shuo ming2 zhen xiang4

 

To debunk (vt): 揭穿 to expose the sham, pretension, falseness or exaggeration of sg by ridicule; 否定 to disprove (to prove to be false); 說明真相 to reveal the nature of

 

Sentence pattern:

to debunk the notion/idea/myth/misconception/claim of

to debunk a mysterious phenomenon

 

Example:

拆穿 一種 傳說 迷信

to debunk a legend, superstition   

chai chuan   yi zhong3  chuan2 shuo   mi2 xin4

 

這網站  賣力 拆穿 都市裡的傳說

This web site assiduously debunks urban legends. (= to prove to be false)

Zhe4 wang3 zhan4   mai4 li4   chai chuan   du shi4 li3 de chuan2 shuo

 

拆穿  廣告口號 的不實

to debunk advertising slogans

chai chuan   guang3 gao4 kou3 hao4   de bu4 shi2

 

提出 學說  否定   更快

It’s quicker to create theories than to debunk them.

Ti2 chu   xue2 shuo   bi3  chai chuan   ta   geng4 kuai4

 

研究結果  否定 他的理論

The results of the study debunks his theory. (= to disprove/to prove to b e false)

Yan2 jiou4 jie2 guo3   fou3 ding4 le   ta de li3 lun4

 

竭力 拆穿 可疑的 報導

Make every effort to debunk skeptical reports.

Jie2 li4   chai chuan   ke3 yi2 de   bao4 dao3

 

這電視節目 拆穿 通靈 神棍 和其他 神秘現象

The TV show debunks psychics, faith healers and other mysterious phenomena.

Zhe4 dian4 shi4 jie2 mu4   chai chuan   tong ling2    sheng2 gun4  han4 qi2 ta   shen2 mi4 xian4 xiang4   

 

做偵查工作的記者  揭發 庸醫 能通靈(有第6)的真相

The investigative reporter easily debunked the charlatan’s claims of clairvoyance.

(= to reveal the nature of/to unmask)(charlatan = quack; clairvoyance = extrasensory perception, ESP6)

Zuo4 zhen cha2 gong zuo4 de ji4 zhe3   chai chuan  yun yi  neng2 tong ling2 (you3 di4 lio4 gan3) de zhen xiang4

 

此文 否定 火星上有生命

The article debunks the notion that life exists on Mars.

Ci3 wen2  fou3 ding4 le  huo3 xing shang4   you3 sheng ming4

 

現代人 傾向於  否定 誠實 愛國 有道德 等的傳統標準

Our modern tendency to debunk traditional standards of honesty, patriotism and morality. (= to remove the false sentiments from.  Sentiments = a thought, opinion or attitude) (Note: there is something wrong with the traditional standards of 3 virtues)

Xian4 dai4 ren2  qing3 xiang4 yü2 fou3 ding4  cheng2 shi2    ai4 guo2   you3 dao4 de2 deng2 de chuan2 tong3 biao zhun3

 

  

 

 

August  1, 2013 (Thursday)

 

To upstage (vt):

搶鋒頭/搶注意力; 待人高傲

Qiang3 fen tou2/qiang3 zhu4yi4 li4; dai4 ren2 gao ao4

 

Upstage (n): 舞台後半 the back or rear half of the stage

To upstage (vt): 搶鋒頭/搶注意力Literally, to force (an actor) to face (or turn) away from the audience by staying upstage; figuratively, to draw attention to oneself (away from someone else)/to steal the show from; 待人高傲 to treat haughtily/to behave snobbishly toward

 

Sentence pattern:

to upstage sy

to upstage sg

 

Example:

Snowden 新爆料  搶了 美國解密行動的 鋒頭

New Snowden leak upstages U.S. move to declassify documents.

Snowden  xin bao4 liao4   qiangf3 le   mei3 guo2 jie3 mi4 xing2 dong4 de   fen tou2

 

搶了 比賽的鋒頭

Upstaging the competition (= to draw attention away from)

Qiang3 le   bi3 sai4 de fen tou2

 

我們不要 花童 搶了 新娘的鋒頭

We don’t want the flower girl upstaging the bride.

Wuo3 men2 bu4 yao4  hua tong2   qiang3 le   xin niang2 de fen tou2

 

他的巧克力蛋糕 搶了我的 蘋果派 鋒頭

My apple pie was upstaged by her chocolate cake.

Ta de qiao3 ke4 li4 dan4 gao   qiang3 le wuo3 de   ping2 guo3 pai4   de fen tou2

 

猩猩 搶了 演員們的鋒頭

The chimpanzee has been upstaging the human actors. (= to steal the show from)

Xing xing  qiang3 le   yan3 yuan2 men2 de fen tou2

 

他竟然教我 如何關門 態度高傲

He properly upstaged me by showing me how to shut the door. (= to treat haughtily or snobbishly)

Ta jing4 ran2 jiao wuo3   ru2 he2 guan men2   tai4 du4 gao ao4

 

討論甜品名廚師很久 也花很長時間 插花 (2件事) 搶了 演員們的鋒頭

It’s long enough for a discussion of a famous pastry chef and for the flower arrangements that upstage the characters.

Tao3 lung tian2 pin3  ming2 chu2 shi hen2 jiou3   ye3 hua hen3 chang2 shi2 jian   cha hua  (zhe4 er4 jian4 shi4)  dou qiang3 le   yan3 yuan2 men2 de fen tou2

 

Upstage (adv.):

他走到 舞台後半左側 廁所  小便聲音響徹空中

He then went to the restroom upstage left, and the sound of urination filled the space. 

Ta zou3 dao4  wu3 tai2 hou4 ban4 zuo3 ce4 xiao3 bian4   xia3 bian4 sheng yin xiang3 che4 kong zhong

 

 

 

 

July 31, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

To cave in (vt, vi):

使(某物)塌陷 (vt)/(某物)塌陷(vi)/屈服 (vi)

Shi3 (mou3 wu4) ta xian4 (vt)/(mou3 wu4) ta xian4 (vi)/qü fu2 (vi)

 

To cave in (vi): 1. 塌陷 to collapse suddenly into a hollow beneath it; 2. 屈服 (Informal) to yield completely under pressure/to surrender

To cave in (vt): 使塌陷 to cause to fall in, collapse, or subside

 

Cave-in (n): 1. a collapse of anything hollow; 2. surrender

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg caves in sg else.

Sg caves in.

Sy caves in.

 

Example:  

雪的重量 壓垮 屋頂

Snow load caves in roofs.

Xue3 de zhong4 liang4   ya kua3  wu ding3

 

颱風 吹走 屋頂  吹垮 地基

Hurricane (typhoon) blows off roof and caves in foundation.

Tai2 fen  chuei zou3  wu ding3   ye3 chuei kua3  di4 ji

 

冰雪 堆積  壓垮 2處屋頂

Snow and ice buildup caves in 2 roofs.

Bin xue3 duei ji   ya kua3 le   er4 chu4  wu ding3

 

地震 震垮 牆壁

The earthquake made the walls cave in.

Di4 zhen4  zhen4 kua3   qiang2 bi4

 

屋頂 塌下來/地面塌陷/礦坑塌陷/隧道塌陷

A roof caves in/a piece of ground caves in/a mine caves in/a tunnel caves in.

Wu ding3 ta xia4 lai2/di4 mian4 ta xian4/kuang4 keng ta xian4/suei4 dao4 ta xian4 

 

大雨過後 體育館 屋頂 塌陷

Stadium roof caved in after heavy rain.

Ta4 yü3 guo4 hou4   ti3 yü4 guan3  wu ding3  ta xian4

 

很快 就要 塌下來 壓住你

The sky will cave in on you by and by. (by and by = in a short time/before long)

Tian hen3 kuai4   jiou4 yao4   ta xia4 lai2   ya zhu4 ni3

 

徒步旅行20英里後

After a twenty-mile hike, I caved in. (= to collapse/faint/die from exhaustion)

Tu2 bu4 lü3 xing2 20 ying li3 hou4   wuo3 tan le

 

檢察官的 逼問 很快 使證人 屈服

The prosecutor’s questions soon made the witness cave in. (= to give in/to yield/to surrender)

Jian3 chua2 guan de  bi wen4  hen3 kuai4   shi3 zheng4 ren2   qü fu2

 

對方 屈服 我們卓越的辯解

The opposition caved in before our superior arguments.

Duei4 fan qü fu2 yü2 wuo3 men2 zhuo2 yue4 de bian4 jie3

 

他拒絕 屈服 獨裁者們  這使他的生命 成了人權的旗幟

Her refusal to cave to the dictators has translated her life into a banner for human rights everywhere. (to cave = to cave in)

Ta jü4 jue2  qü fu2 yü2 du2 cai2 zhe3 men2   zhe4 shi3  ta de sheng ming4  cheng2 le  ren2 quan2 de qi2 zhi4

 

你若屈服  悲傷 依舊

If you cave in, the grief will continue.

Ni3 ruo4 qü fu2   bei shang yi jiou4

 

cave-in (n)

礦史中 最遭的 塌陷事件

The worst cave-in in the history of mining. (= a collapse of anything hollow)

Kuang4 shi3 zhong  zuei4 zao de  ta xian4 shi4 jiang4

 

屈服於無理的要求 讓我們很震驚

His cave-in to such unreasonable demands shocked us. (= submission to sg or sy previously resisted)

Ta qü fu2  yü2 wu2 li3 de yao qiou2   rang4 wuo3 men2 hen3 zhen4 jing

 

 

 

 

July 30, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

British English:

To whitewash (vt, vi): 刷白 Literally, to cover with a white liquid composition

To whitewash (vt): 掩飾/粉飾 (常說成: 漂白) Figuratively, to conceal sg bad/to make sg look better than it really is/to gloss over/to cover up

To whitewash (vt): 設法脫罪 to exonerate or clear sy of charges by means of superficial or perfunctory investigation or artful presentation of data/to absolve a wrongdoer from blame by giving a speciously fair appearance

whitewash (n)

 

Sentence pattern:

to whitewash (vt) sy or sg

sg whitewashes (vi) easily.

to give sy/sg a whitewash  

 

Example:

 

現在 切勿 嘗試 粉飾 此事  把它公開吧

Now, don’t try to whitewash this incident, open up about it.

xiang4 zai4 qie4 wu4  chang2 shi4  fen3 shi4  ci3 shi4  ba3 ta gong kai ba

 

他們嘗試 掩飾 醜聞  沒有用

They tried to give the scandal the old whitewash, but it didn’t work. (= an act or campaign of covering up sg b ad)

ta men2 chang2 shi4  yan3 shi4  chou3 wen2   dan4 mei2 you3 yong4

 

拒絕 掩飾 醜聞

Refused to whitewash the scandal (= to gloss lover/to cover up)

jü4 jue2  yan3 shi4  chou3 wen2  

 

拒絕 州長長期忽視真相 脫罪

Refused to whitewash the governor’s chronic disregard for the truth

jü4 jue2 wei4 zhou zhang3 chang2 qi2 hu shi4  zhen xiang4  tuo zuei4 

 

此書嘗試 粉飾 該國 的過去

A book that tries to whitewash the country’s past

ci3 shu chang2 shi4  fen3 shi4 gai guo2 de guo4 qü4 

 

Literal meaning:

此牆壁 很容易刷白

This wall whitewashes (vi) very easily.

ci3 qiang2 bi4  hen3 rong2 yi4 shua bai2 

 

Sports:

他們面臨 即將到來的 5 全敗

They face the prospect of a whitewash in the five-test series. (= a defeat in every sporting contest or game in a series)

ta men2 mian4 lin2  ji2 jiang dao4 lai2 de  5  quan2 bai4

 

 

 

 

July 29, 2013 (Monday)

 

To gloss over (vt)

1. 粉飾 或掩飾 (vt)(錯誤, 問題等); 2. 刻意敷衍了事 (vt)

 

To gloss over (vt): 掩飾 to veil or hide (sg that would otherwise be objected to or prove a source of difficulty) by plausible pretext, pretense, subterfuge, or excuse/to hide under a deceptively attractive appearance or surface/to cover up the faults or errors of using deceptive words or actions/to absolve a wrongdoer from blame

 

To gloss over (vt): 粉飾 to give a specious interpretation of sg (specious = pleasing to the eye but deceptive/to give a deceptively attractive appearance to/to hide under a deceptively attractive appearance or surface

 

To gloss over (vt): 刻意敷衍了事 to deal with unpleasant facts rapidly and cursorily (in a hasty and superficial manner) or to omit them altogether from an account of sg

 

Sentence pattern:

to gloss over a problem, vice, crime, fault, error, wrongdoing, etc.

 

Example:

他努力 粉飾問題

He endeavored to gloss the matter over. (= to make appear right or acceptable/to whitewash)

Ta nu3 li4 fen3 shi4 wen4 ti2

 

無人企圖 掩飾 那不名譽的行為

No attempt is made to gloss over discreditable behavior

Wu2 ren2 qi4 tu2 yan3 shi4  na4 bu4 ming2 yü4 de xing2 wei2

 

沒有想過要 掩飾 我們所知零碎的現狀

Not wish to gloss over the fragmentary state of our present knowledge

Mei2 you3 xiang3 guo4 yao4 yan3 shi4  wuo3 men2 suo3 zhi ling2 suei4 de xian4 zhuang4

 

使用概括性語言 掩飾 (詳細)數據之不足

A tendency to gloss over inadequacies in the data with generalizations

Shi3 yong4 gai4 kuo4 xing4 yü3 yan2   lai2 yan3 shi4 (xiang2 xi4) shu4 jü4 zhi bu4 zu2

 

刻意粉飾學界之紛爭  而不讓他們 面對面 對峙

Glosses over scholarly controversies rather than confronting them head-on (= to deal with a subject or problem too lightly o5r not at all)

Ke4 yi4 fen3 shi4 xue2 jie4 zhi fen zheng  er2 bu4 rang4 ta men2  mian4 duei4n mian4  duei4 zhi4

 

沒有用大量酒精止痛之各處 都有傷痛

The misery was general, where not glossed over by liberal application of alcohol

Mei2you3 yong4 ta4 liang4 jiou3 jing zhi3 tong4 zhi ge4 chu4  dou you3 shang tong4

 

使用適當的方法 掩飾問題的嚴重

to gloss over a serious problem with a pat solution

shi3 yong4 shi4 dan4 de fang fa3  yan3 shi4 wen4 ti2 de yan2 zhong4

 

他的履歷表 掩飾他經驗不足

His resume glossed over his lack of experience (= to make attractive or acceptable by deception or superficial treatment)

Ta de lü3 li4 biao3  yan3 shi4  ta jing yan4 bu4 zu2

 

她強調(2件事)沒有差異 掩飾錯誤

she tried to gloss over the mistake by insisting it would make no difference

ta qiang2 diao4 (er4 jiang4 shi4) mei2you3 cha yi4  lai2 yan3 shi4 cuo4 wu4

 

習近平願見安倍  但日本應停止使用 所謂 對談的空洞口號 刻意敷衍雙方歧見

Xi would meet Abe but Japan should stop using empty slogans about so-called dialogue to gloss over disagreements

Xi2 jin4 ping2 yuan4 jiang4 an bei4   dan4 ri4 ben3 ying4 ting2 zhi3 shi3 yong4 suo3 wei4  duei4 tan2 de kong dong4 kou3 hao4  lai2 ke4 yi4 fu yan4 shuang fan qi2 jiang4

 

 

 

 

July 27, 2013 (Saturday)

 

To freak out (vt, vi)(Informal)

(指失常的激烈情緒反應)大驚/大怒/樂翻/發狂 (vt, vi)

(Zhi3 shi chang2 de ji lie4 qing2 xü4 fan3 ing4)  ta4 jing/ta4 nu4/le4 fan/zhua kuang2

 

To freak out (vt, vi)(Informal): to be or cause to be in a heightened emotional state, such as that of fear, anger, joy, or excitement. 

 

To freak out (vt)(Slang): to shock or disorient sy/to cause to lose emotional control and behave irrationally from extreme excitement, fear, joy, or despair/to make greatly astonished, discomposed, or distressed.

 

To freak out (vi)(Slang): to panic/to lose emotional control and one’s composure from extreme excitement, etc./to enter into hallucinations or frightening feelings after taking a psychogenic (mind-altering) drug

 

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg that freaks (vt) sy out

to freak (vi) out doing sg

to freak out on a drug

 

Example:

他的所見 嚇壞了他  每次回想起來 他還會發抖 (大驚)

What he saw freaked him out so much that he still gets shaken when he remembers it. (= to make greatly astonished, distressed, or discomposed)

Ta de suo3 jiang4   xia4 huai4 le ta   mei3 ci4 huei2 xiang3 qi3 lai2   ta hai2 huei4 fa dou3

 

他看到屍體時 嚇壞

Seeing the dead body freaked him out.

Ta kang4 dao4 shi ti3 shi2   xia4 huai4 le

 

不要談死亡  它會嚇死

Don’t talk about death, as it totally freaks me out.

Bu4 yao4 tan2 si3 wang2   ta hue4 xia4 si3 wuo3

 

那個意外事件 千鈞一髮  真把我嚇壞

It was such a close accident that it really freaked me out.

Na4 ge yi4 wai4 shi4 jian4  qian jun yi fa3   zhen ba3 wuo3  xia4 huai4 le

 

我被嚇得  神智不清

I was so frightened, I thought I would freak (out) (= to panic/to lose control)

Wuo3 bei4 xia4 de2   shen2 zhi4 bu4 qing

 

我丟了眼鏡 爽約時 我會 火大 (大怒)

If I lose my glasses or miss my appointment, I freak out. (= lose one’s composure/to react with irrational excitement)

Wuo3 diu le yan3 jing4   huo4  shuang3 yue shi2   wuo3 hue4  huo3 ta4

 

他親眼看到了 電影裡的男主角時 樂翻

She freaked out seeing the movie hero.

Ta qing yan3 kan4 dao4 le  dian4 ying3 li3 de nan2 zhu2 jiao3 shi2   le4 fan le

 

樂隊 演奏狂野  聽眾 神魂顛倒

The band’s wild playing made the audience freak out. (= to cause to behave irrationally

and uncontrollably with excitement, fear, or madness)

yue4 duei4 yang3 zhou4 kuang2 ye3   ting zhong4  shen2 hun2 diang dao3

 

他們吸食迷幻藥而 發狂

They were freaking out on LSD. 發狂 (a)(進入迷幻世界 withdrawn from reality)

She freaked out and ended up in a psychiatric ward.

Ta men2 xi shi2 mi2 huan4 yao4 er2  fa kuang2

 

Freakout (n): a psychogenic drug reaction

 

 

 

 

July 21, 2013 (Sunday)

 

To cry foul (-ou-)(vt) (Informal)

(對不公平之事)公開強烈抗議 (直譯: 喊犯規) (新聞用語)

 

To cry foul (-ou-)(vt) (informal): to protest strongly about a wrong or injustice/to say publicly that something that has happened is dishonest, unfair, unjust or illegal, especially when it affects you directly) (Foul in this context means foul play, a violation of the rules)

 

Sentence pattern:

to cry foul over sg

to cry foul when/as ---.

 

Example:

 

中國增加補貼出口貨物 澳大利亞 公開 喊犯規 (公開強烈 抗議)

Australia has cried foul over China’s decision to increase the export subsidies.  

Zhong guo2 zeng jia bu3 tie chu kou3 huo4 wu4  ao4 ta4 li4 ya4  gong kai han3 fan4 guei (gong kai qiang2 lie4 kang4 yi4

 

Apple 公司 新的廣告條件 A公司CEO公開強烈抗議

AdMob’s CEO cries foul over Apple’s new Advertising Terms. (= to complain that somebody else has done sg wrong or unfair)

Apple gong six in de guang3 gao4 tiao2 jian4   A gong si CEO gong kai han3 fan4 guei (gong kai qiang2 lie4 kang4 yi4

 

Va 縣將 大蕭條時期的 土地歷史紀錄丟棄 歷史學者 公開強烈抗議

Historians cry foul when Va. County tosses Depression-era land records.

Va xian4 jiang ta4 xiao tiao2 shi2 qi2 de  tu3 di4 li4 shi3 ji4 lu4  diu qi4   li4 shi3 xue2 she3 gong kai han3 fan4 guei (gong kai qiang2 lie4 kang4 yi4

 

Obama 金主們 執掌 大使館最高職位 美國外交官們公開強烈抗議

U.S. diplomats cry foul as Obama donors take over top embassy jobs.  

Obama jing zhu3 men2  zhi2 zhang3  ta4 shi2 guang3 zuei4 gao zhi2 wei4  mei3 guo2 wai4 jiao guan men2 gong kai han3 fan4 guei (gong kai qiang2 lie4 kang4 yi4

神農子注: 當選總統後 給金主們高官職位 稱為 政治酬庸, 英文是 political patronage, 是 人類政治腐敗行為 (corruption) 之一種!!!

 

 

 

July 20, 2013 (Saturday)

 

toll  (-oh-)(n): the cost in loss or suffering at which sg is achieved/damage done (literally a tax, duty, fee or tribute levied, figuratively other costs exacted)

(完成一件事所付出的)損失或傷害

to take its/a toll (一件事)造成傷害: be damaging or harmful/cause loss or destruction or damage) (literally the taking of a tax or tribute, figuratively the exacting of other costs)

 

sentence pattern:

to take its toll on/of sy or sg

to take a toll on/of sy or sg

 

to exact a toll/price/cost on sy or sg

 

Example:

離婚傷害子女

Divorce takes its toll on the children involved.

Li2 hun shang hai4 zi2 nü3

 

美國南北戰爭 傷害了雙方( 雙方都受害)

The civil war has taken its toll on both sides.

Mei3 guo2 nan2 bei3 zhan4 zheng  shang hai4 le  shang fan (ji4 shuang fan dou shou4 hai4)

 

陸上卡車擁擠  損害高速公路

The heavy truck traffic has taken its toll on the highways.

Lu4 shang4 ka3 che yong ji3   yi3 sun3 hai4 gao su4 gong lu4

 

戰爭 傷害居民

The war took its toll of the inhabitants.

Zhan4 zheng  shang hai4 jü min2

 

國防 耗費 龐大資金 人力

National defense takes an enormous toll of money and manpower.

Guo2 fang2  hao4 fei4  pang2 ta4 zi jin  han4 ren2 li4

 

通貨膨脹 造成傷害

Inflation has taken its toll.

Tong huo4 pong2 zhang4  yi3 zao4 cheng2 shang hai4

 

洪水已造成 嚴重損失

The flood took a heavy toll.

Hong2 shuei3 yi3 zao4 cheng2  yan2 zhong4 sun3 shi

 

藥品濫用 傷害健康 頗大

Drug abuse takes quite a toll on the lives of people.

Yao4 pin3 lan4 yong4  shang hai4 jian4 kang  po3 ta4

 

幾年日光浴後 她皮膚 損傷

Years of sunbathing took a toll on her skin.

Ji3 nian2 ri4 guang yü4 hou4   ta pi2 fu  yi3 sun3 shang

 

他低估 精神病 對家庭 造成傷害

He underestimates the toll mental illness takes on a family

Ta di gu  jing sheng2 bing4  duei4  jia ting2  suo3 zao4 cheng2 de shang hai4 

 

夏日溫度飆升 可對許多種園子裡的植物 造成傷害

Soaring summer temperatures can take a toll on many garden plants.

Xia4 ri4 wen du4 biao sheng   ke3 duei4 xü3 duo zhong3 yuan2 zi li3 de zhi2 wu4  zhao4

Cheng2 shang hai4

 

時間似乎 參加比賽的最佳運動員們 造成傷害 更大

And time seemingly takes its toll on the game’s best players more dramatically.

Shi2 jiang si4 hu  duei4  can jia bi3 sai4 de zuei4 jia yun4 dong4 yuan2 men3  zao4 cheng2 shang hai4

 

大學主管們 頻繁換人 造成幾種傷害

High turnover of chief academic officers takes its toll in several ways.

Ta4 xue2 zhu2 guan3 men2  pin2 fan2 huan4 ren2   ke3 zao4 cheng2 ji3 zhong3 shang hai4

 

無限制的肉類消費  已經傷害了環境 和社會

The unbridled consumption of meat has exacted the environmental and societal toll. (=

    has exacted its toll on the environment and society)

wu2 xiang4 zhi4 de rou4 lei4 xiao fei4  yi3 jing shang hai4 le huang2 jing4  han4  she4 huei4

 

遠離家鄉 通常 情緒 嚴重受創

Expatriation usually exacts a large emotional toll.(= exacts a large toll on emotion).

Yuan3 li2 jia xiang  tong chang2  qing2 xü4  yan2 zhong4 shou4 chuang4

 

中國的(過量)投資 已經造成 鋼鐵工業的損失: 鋼鐵生產過剩 已經 毒害了國內外市場

China’s investment has taken a toll on the steel industry, where oversupply has poisoned

domestic and worldwide markets.

Zhong guo2 de (guo4 liang4) tou2 zi  yi3 jing zao4 cheng2  gang tie3 gong ye4 de sun3 shi: gang tie3 sheng chan3 guo4 sheng4 yi3 jing   du2 hai4 le guo2 nei4 wai4 shi4 chang3 

 

暴風雨 奪命數千人 但防颱工作比以前好 減少了損失

The storm killed thousands, but better preparedness kept the toll down.

Bao4 feng yü  duo3 ming4 shu4 qian ren2   dan4 fang2 tai2 gong zuo4 bi3 yi3 qian2 hao3  jian2 shao3 le sun3 shi

 

颱風造成死亡損失

The death toll from the hurricane (= cost in life or health)

Tai2 feng zao4 cheng2 de si3 wang2 sun3 shi   

 

 

 

 

July 17, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

to stave off (vt)

擋開/避開某人; 預防某事發生

dang3 kai/bi4 kai mou3 ren2; yü4 fang3 mou3 shi4 fa sheng

 

to stave (steyv) off (vt):  literally to beat sg off with a stave, metaphorically

    to keep or hold away/to repel

to stave off sy 擋開某人; 避開某人;  to fend off/to ward off/to keep

    away/keep off sy by force or evasion

to stave off sg 預防某事發生: to forestall or prevent sg adverse esp at the

    last moment or in extremity/to avert/to deflect/to hold off sg undesirable

    especially temporarily

Sentence pattern:

to stave off sy

to stave off sg

 

Example:

設法躲避債權人

to try to stave off creditors

she4 fa3  duo3 bi4   zhai4 quan2 ren2

 

她身邊跟著一群人 用來擋掉追求者

She keeps a lot of people around her in order to stave off her lovers.

Ta shen bian gen zhe yi qun2 ren2   yong4 lai2  dang3 diao4  zhuei qiu2 zhe3

 

有新方法預防心臟病突發

New ways to stave off heart attacks

You3 xin fang fa3  yü4 fang3  xin zang4 bing4  tu2 fa

 

經常運動 有助於預防心臟病

Regular exercise will help stave off heart disease.

Jing chang2 yun4 dong4  you3 zhu4 yü2 yü4 fang3 xin zang4 bing4

 

泥水深及腰部 他們 嚼可可葉預防 疲勞和飢餓

Standing waist-deep in muddy water, they chew coca leaves to stave off exhaustion and

hunger.

Ni2 shuei3 shen ji2 yiao bu4   ta men2  jue2 ke2 ke2 yie4  yü4 fang3  pi2 lao2 han4 ji e4

 

海邊露天野餐 需要 夾克

Dining alfresco on the coast calls for jackets to stave off the chilly air. 

Hai3 bian lu4 tian   yie3 can   xü yiao4  jia ke4  yü4 han2

 

有些經濟政策 有助於預防經濟下滑

Some economic policy that helps to stave off a sharper downturn

You3 xie jing ji4 zheng4 ce4   you3 zhu4 yü2  yü4 fang3   jing ji4 xia4 hua2

 

美國 聯儲會 決心預防通貨膨脹

The Federal Reserve Board is determined to stave off inflation.

Mei3 guo2 lian2 chu3 huei4  jue2 xin  yü4 fang3   tong huo4 pong2 zhang4

 

最後一種信用 預防 抵押房屋 被債權人沒收

The last form of credit that staved off foreclosure

Zuei4 hou4 yi zhong3 xin4 yong4  ke3  yü4 fang3    di3 ya fang2 wu  bei4 zhai4 quan2 ren2 mo4 shou

 

  

 

 

July 13, 2013 (Saturday)

 

to conflate (vt) 2 things:

混為一談 (= 未加以區分) (vt)

Hun4 wei2 yi tan2 (= wei4 jia yi3 qü fen)

 

to conflate (-fleyt)(vt) (I): to fail to differentiate a thing from something similar or related/to confuse (with)/to mistake (for)/to interpret (as)

Sentence pattern:

to conflate A and B/to conflate A, B, and C

to conflate A with B

 

Example:

勿將 熱傳導 熱容量 混為一談(即未加以區分)

Let’s not conflate thermal conductivity and heat capacity.

Wu4 jiang  re4 chuan2 dao3  han4 re4 rong2 liang4  hun4 wei2 yi tan2

 

這些保險計畫 將個人存款 退休存款 混為一談(即未加以區分)

These plans conflate personal saving and pension saving.

(zhe4 xie bao3 xian3 ji4 hua4  jian  ge4 ren2 cun2 kuan2 han tuei4 xiu cun2 kuan2  hun4 wei2 yi tan2)

 

天擇 和突變 誤認為是同一個過程

to conflate selection and mutation as one process (= to confuse selection with mutation as one process/to take selection for mutation as one process/to interpret selection and mutation as one process)

jiang tian ze2  han4  tu2 bian4  wu4 ren4 wei4 shi4  tong2 yi ge guo4 cheng2

 

這些故事 行為 個性特質 混為一談

The stories conflate behaviors and traits.

Zhe4 xie gu4 shi4  jiang xing2 wei2  han4  ge4 xing4 te4 zhi2  hun4 wei4 yi tan2

 

大家 將這 二個概念 誤認為是 同一個概念

People conflate these two as if they are identical concepts.

Da4 jia  jiang zhe4 er4 ge gai4 nian4  wu4 ren4 wei4 shi4  tong2 yi ge gai4 nian4

 

當心 勿將 八卦 和真實消息 混為一談

Be careful not to conflate gossip with real news/be careful not to confuse gossip with real news (= not to interpret gossip as real news/not to take gossip for real news/not to mistake gossip for real news)

dang xin  wu4 jian  ba gua4  han4 zhen shi2 xiao xi2  hun4 wei2 yi tan2

 

勿將 電影事業 舞台戲劇事業 混為一談

Don’t conflate the movie business with theater business.

Wu4 jiang  dian4 ing3 shi4 ye4  han4  wu3 tai2 xi4 jü4 shi4 ye4  hun4 wei4 yi tan2 

 

勿將 我們國家自身利益     個人正直的價值判斷 混為一談

Let’s not conflate our national self-interest with self-righteous moral judgment.

Wu4 jiang wlo3 men2 guo2 jia ze4 shen li4 yi4   han4  ge4 ren2 zheng4 zhi2 de jia4 zhi2 pan4 duan4  hun4 wei4 yi tan2

 

中國 將網路間諜 利用電腦竊取貿易機密 混為一談 (即未加以區分)

China tends to conflate cyber espionage with cyber-enabled trade secret theft

Zhong guo2 jian wang3 lu4 jian4 die2  han4 li4 yong4 dian4 nao3 qie4 qü3 mao4 yi4 ji mi4   hun4 wei2 yi tan2

 

有些官員 誘拐, 販賣人口, 和走私等 刑事罪  混為一談

Some officials continue to conflate the crimes of kidnapping, human trafficking, and smuggling.

You3 xie guan yuan2 reng2 jiang  you4 guai3, fan4 mai4 ren2 kou3, han4 zou3 si deng3 xing2 shi4 zuei4   hun4 wei2 yi tan2

 

 

 

 

June 21, 2013 (Friday)

 

Summary:

 

To pelt (vt, vi) (I – IV): (I) to throw at; (II) to hit, strike, beat, dash against, (IIa) to drive; (III) to assail; or (IV) to move. 

 

Each of its 4 meanings (4 actions) has 3 qualities in common: the action is rapid, in succession 連續, and forceful or vigorous (用力).

 

To pelt means to engage in a rapid succession of forceful or vigorous action of throwing, hitting, assailing or moving.   

 

4動作 共同特色都是  /連續/(用力)

Si4 zhong3 dong4 zuo4   gong4 tong2 te4 se4 dou shi4   kuai4/lian2 xü4/mong3 (yong4 li4)

 

You wouldn’t use this verb for an action that is not rapid, in succession, AND vigorous!

 

 

 

 

June 20, 2013 (Thursday)

 

To pelt (vi) (IV):

快速用力移動

Kuai4 su4 yong4 li4 yi2 dong4

 

To pelt (vi): to move rapidly and vigorously /to hurry

To pelt to a place

 

Example:

 

想像 整個人群 電話機區  猛衝

Imagine the whole crowd pelting to the telephones. (= to hurry)

Xiang3 xiang4  zheng3 ge ren2 qun2  wang3  diang4 hua4 ji qü  meng3 chong

 

低著上身騎馬  這匹母馬能跑多快  我就有多快

Riding low and as hard as the mare could pelt  (mare, mair = a female

    horse)

Di zhe shang4 shen qi2 ma3  zhe4 pi mu3 ma3 neng2 pao3 duo kuai4  wuo3

    jiou4 you3 duo kuai4

 

全速 用力跑

To run at full pelt (= at full speed)

Quan2 su4 yong4 li4 pao3

 

 

 

 

June 19, 2013 (Wednesday)

 

To pelt (vt, vi) (III):

連續(以語言或文字)猛烈攻擊(別人)

Lian2 xü4 (yi3 yü3 yian2 huo4 wen2 zhi4) mong3 lie4 gong ji2 (bie2 ren2)

 

To pelt (vt): to assail repeatedly and forcefully with words

To pelt sy with questions, words, etc.

 

Example:

 

音樂家們 感到敬畏 一再質問他許多天堂裡生活的問題  

The awestruck musicians pelt him with questions about life in heaven.

Yin yue4 jia men2  gan3 dao4 jing4 wuei4  yi zhi2 zhi2 wen4 ta  xü3 duo   tian tang2 li3

    sheng huo2 de wen4 ti2

 

他從馬鞍上滑落下來時 觀眾 一再轟他許多問題

The crowd pelted him with questions while he slid from his saddle.

Ta cong2 ma3 an shang4  hua2 .luo4 xia4 lai2 shi2   zhi2 wen4 ta xü3 duo wen4 ti2

 

群眾 一再嘲笑 詆毀

The crowd pelted him with ridicule and vilification

Qun2 zhong4 yi zhi2 chao2 xiao4 ta  di3 huei3 ta

 

用話語 一直猛烈攻擊

To pelt him with words

Yong4 hua4 yü3 yi zhi2 gong ji2 ta

 

 

 

 

June 18, 2013 (Tuesday)

 

To pelt (vt) (IIa):

連續用力打著趕牛etc.

Lian2 xü4 yong4 li4 da3 zhe gan3 niu2 etc.

 

To pelt (vt): to drive (animals) by means of a succession of  blows or missiles

 

Sentence pattern:

To pelt cows, sheep, goats etc.

 

Example:

小孩 連續用力打著牛 從田野 將牛 趕回家

The child pelted the cows home from the fields.

Xiao3 hai2  lian2 xü4 yong4 li4 da3 zhe niu2   cong2 tian2 ye3  jian niu2 

    gan3 huei2 jia

 

從白天到太陽下山  小孩們 連續用力打趕著 綿羊 和山羊

Lads pelting through the gloaming their sheep and goats (to gloam, glohm = to

    become dark/to grow toward dark)

Cong2 bai2 tian dao4 tai4 yang2 xia4 shan  xiao3 hai2 men3   lian2 xü4

    yong4 li4 da3 gan3 zhe mian2 yang2 han4 shan yang2

 

 

 

 

June 17, 2013 (Monday)

 

To pelt (vt, vi) (II):

(雨等)用力連續擊打著 (窗等)

(Yü3 deng3) yong4 li4  lian2 xü4 ji2 da3 zhe  (chuang deng3)

 

To pelt (vt, vi): (2) to beat or rush against or dash against with repeated forceful blows or with a succession of vigorous impacts/to beat incessantly

 

Sentence pattern:

(of rain, etc.) to pelt sg/to pelt against sg

 

Example:

冰雹 連續 撞擊 屋牆

Hailstones pelted the sides of the houses

Bing bao2  lian2 xü4 zhuang4 ji2  wu qiang2

 

四天來 風雨 連續敲打著  屋頂 和牆壁    

The wind and rain pelted the roofs and walls of the houses for 4 days.

Si4 tian lai2  feng yü3  lian2 xü4 qiao da3 zhe    wu ding3 han4 qiang2 bi4

 

傾盆大雨

It’s pelting down. (to pelt down = to rain heavily)(vi)

Qing3 pen2 da4 yü3

 

傾聽 雨滴 連續敲打著 錫包住的屋頂 作響

Listening to the rain pelt and rattle on the tin roof

Qing3 ting  yü3 di  lian2 xü4 qiao da3 zhe   xi2 bao zhu4 de wu ding3  zuo4 xiang3

 

風雨雪 連續敲打著 堡壘的牆

The wind, rain, and snow pelted against the castle walls.

Feng yü3 xue3  lian2 xü4 qiao da3 zhe  bao2 lei3 de qiang2

 

 

 

 

June 16, 2013 (Sunday)

 

To pelt (vt, vi) (I):

(向人/)連續丟擲(石頭 etc.)

(xiang4 ren2/wu4) lian2 xü4 diu zhi2 (shi2 tou2 etc.)

 

To pelt (vt, vi): (1) to throw stones, rocks, eggs, etc.  quickly and repeatedly at sy or sg/to throw a succession of blows or missiles (stones, bullets, or arrows)

 

Sentence pattern:

To pelt sy or sg with sg

To pelt at sy's head

 

Example:

一伙男生 一伙女生 連續丟擲 蘋果

Boys pelted the girls with green apples.

Yi4 huo3 nan2 sheng   xiang4 yi huo3 nü sheng  lian2 xü4 diu zhi2 lü ping2 guo3

 

聽眾 演講人連續丟擲 雞蛋

The audience pelted the speaker with eggs.

Ting zhong4 xiang4 yian2 jiang3 ren2  lian2 xü4 diu zhi2 ji dan4

 

口出惡言的學生 向警車連續丟擲 石塊

Taunting students pelt police vehicles with rocks.

Kou3 chü e4 yian2 de xue2 sheng  xiang4 jing3 che  lian2 xü4 diu zhi2   shi2 kuai4

 

我們看到 暴民(鬧事人群) 向警察  連續丟擲 磚塊 和瓶子

We saw rioters pelting police with bricks and bottles. 

Wuo3 men2 kan4 tao4  bao4 min2 (nao4 shi4 ren2 qun2)  xiang4  jing3 cha2 lian2 xü4 diu zhi2 zhuan kuai4  han4 ping2 zi

 

一伙學生  連續互丟 雪球

The students pelted one another with snowballs.

Yi4 huo3 xue2 sheng   lian2 xü4 hu4 diu   xue3 qiu2

 

他們口袋裡裝滿了小石子 向對方的頭 連續猛丟

They filled their pockets full of pebblestones and pelted (vi) so fast at each other’s pate. (Shakespeare)

Ta men2 kou3 dai4 li3  zhuang man3 le  xiao3 shi2 zi  xiang4 duei fang de tou2  lian2 xü4 diu zhi2

 

Note: 只丟擲 一或二次  zhi3 diu zhi2 yi huo4 er4 ci4

Someone in the audience threw a shoe (shoes) at the speaker (George Bush).

 

\

 

 

 

June 14, 2013 (Friday)

 

To jostle (vt, vi):

人擠人/物擠物 (v)

Ren2 ji3 ren2/wu4 ji3 wu4

 

To jostle (vt, vi): (1) to bump (or bump against), to push, to shove (or shove against) , to  rush against, to elbow rudely 人擠人/物擠物, (2) to force one's way by pushing or shoving, or elbowing 擠著走 ji3 zhe zou3, (3) to come into contact or in proximity with sy or sg , ji3, (4) to compete or contend 爭取 zheng qü3

 

Sentence pattern:

Vt:

To jostle each other (or one another, or the others) for sg/doing sg

To jostle one's way through the crowd, the mob or the guests to a place

Vi:

To jostle with (or against) the others for sg  

to jostle toward the exit/to the front line

to jostle for sg

to jostle to do sg

 

Example:

我隨著人群  擠進地鐵

The crowd jostled me into the subway.

Wo3 suei2 zhe ren2 qun2  ji3 jin4 di4 tie3 (Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, qun2 = ㄑㄩㄣˊ)

 

在人群中 人擠人 想看個清楚

Everyone in the crowd jostled each other (or one another) trying to get a better view.

Zai4 ren2 qun2 zhong   ren2 ji3 ren2   xiang3 kan4 ge qing chu3 (Note: qing =  ㄑ一ㄥ)

 

書架上 擠滿了

Books jostle each other on the shelf. (= to come in close proximity with)

Shu jia4 shang4   ji3  man3 le shu

 

三家人 擠在一個小屋裡

Three families jostled each other in a small house.

San jia ren2   ji3 zai4 yi ge xiao3 wu li3

 

郵差在人行道上  推擠著行人走

Messengers jostled pedestrians on the sidewalk

You2 chai zai4 ren2 xing2 tao4 shang4   tuei ji3 zhe xing2 ren2 zou3

 

擠著走出人群 來到酒吧/擠著走出長廊

He jostled (his way) through the crowd to a bar/he jostled his way out of the long hall

Ji3 zhe zou3 chu ren2 qun2  lai2 tao4 jiou3 pa/ji3 zhe zou3 chu chang2 lang2 (Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, qun2 = ㄑㄩㄣˊ)

 

幼齒男女  推擠著爭睹 名人

The teenagers jostled to get a glimpse of the celebrity.

You4 chi3 nan2 nu3  tuei ji3 zhe   zheng du3  ming2 ren2

 

爭取 地位/優勢/大家的注意/空間

He jostled for position/advantage/attentions or spotlights/space

Ta zheng qü3  ti4 wei4/you shi4/ta4 jia de zhu4 yi4/kuong jian 

 

敵對各方 爭取優勢

Rivals or opposition parties jostled each other for advantage. (= to contend with)

Di2 duei4 ge4 fang   zheng qü3 you shi4   (Note: qu3 = ㄑㄩˇ, shi4 = 尸ˋ)

 

他在看台人群中  推擠著

He jostled against the others on the crowded platform

Ta zai4 kan4 tai2 ren2 qün2 zhong   tuei ji3 zhe (Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, qun2 = ㄑㄩㄣˊ)

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

June 12, 2013 (Wednesday)  original

December 9, 2014 (Tuesday)  updated

 

Words meaning 多變 (n) (III)

vicissitudes (vi-sis-i-tyood)(pl)(n): Definition

持續起伏 (n)

Chi2 xu4 qi3 qi3 fu2 fu2 (Note: chi2 = ㄔˊ, qi3 = ㄑ一ˇ)

 

vicissitudes (pl) (n): 持續起伏 successive alternation from one state to another, as of life, prosperity, wealth, fortune, happiness, etc./ups and downs)

vicissitude (n):  the state of being in flux/changeable

 

Sentence pattern:

the vicissitude(s) of sg

 

Example:

世事起伏 多變

the vicissitude of human condition/in human vicissitude

Shi4 shi4 qi3 fu2 (Note: shi =, 尸ˋ, qi3 = ㄑ一ˇ)

 

歷經40起伏, 他們友誼仍在!

They remained friends through the vicissitudes of 40 years.

Li4 jing si4 shi2 nian2 qi3 fu2    ta men2 you3 yi2 reng2 zai4 (Note: yi = 一ˊ, reng2 = ㄖㄥˊ, zai4 = ㄗㄞˋ)

 

光陰和時機流逝  30顆樹只剩9

the vicissitudes of time and chance have left only 9 of the 30 trees.

(= the successive alterations visible in nature or in human affairs)

Kuang yin han4 shi2 ji liu2 shi4   30 ke shu4 zhi3 sheng4 9 ke (Note: ke = ㄎㄜ, zhi3 = ㄓˇ)

 

面對命運的起伏不定  情侶的忠心和耐心依舊

Lovers not only faithful but patient in the face of remarkable vicissitudes. (= a fluctuation in condition of wealth, prosperity, or happiness/a shift of luck or vagary of chance)

Mian4 duei4 ming4 yun4 di qi3 fu2 bu4 ding4   qing2 lu3 di zhuong xin han4 nai4 xin yi jiou4 (di = ㄉㄜ˙, qing2 = ㄑ一ㄥˊ, lu3 = ㄌㄩˇ, yi = 一)

 

突然 盛衰起伏不定

The sudden vicissitudes of greatness and decay (= alternating change)

Tu2 ran2 sheng4 shuai qi3 fu2 bu4 ding4 (Note: ran2 = ㄖㄢˊ, qi3 = ㄑ一ˇ)

 

人類常承受 生活和命運的起伏!

Human beings often undergo vicissitudes of life and fortune

Ren2 lei4 chang2 cheng2 shou4  sheng huo2 han4 ming4 yun4 di qi3 fu2. (Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, di = ㄉㄜ˙, qi3 = ㄑ一ˇ)

 

諸事多變  投降談判又有進展

After every possible vicissitude, the surrender negotiations appear again to be progressing.

Zhu shi4 duo bian4  tou2 xiang2 tan2 pan4you4 you3 jin4 zhan3

 

Note: other sense

vicissitudes(pl)(n): Definition

低潮/坎坷 (n)

Di chao2/kan3 ke (Note: ke = ㄎㄜ)

 

vicissitudes(pl)(n): 低潮/坎坷 difficulty or hardship incident to life, a career or course of action

 

Sentence pattern:

the vicissitudes of sg

 

Example:

政治迫害和流亡之坎坷

the vicissitudes of political persecution and exile (= difficulty or hardship incident to life, a career or course of action)

zheng4  zhi4 po4 hai4  han4  liu2 wang2 zhi kan3 ke

 

生活坎坷  諸如飲食差 染病 酗酒 外傷 情緒壓力 過勞 懶惰  

the vicissitudes of living, such as faulty diets, infections, intoxications, traumata, emotional stresses, overwork, laziness.

Sheng huo2 kan3 ke  zhu ru2   in3 shi2 cha    ran3 bing4   xu4 jiou3   wai4 shang   qing2 xu4 ya li4   kuo4 lao2   lan3 duo4   

 

貧窮坎坷 擋了成長

the dwarfing vicissitudes of poverty (to dwarf = to stunt the growth of)

Pin2 qiong2     dang3 le cheng2 zhang3

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

June 10, 2013 (Monday)  original

December 9, 2014 (Tuesday)  updated

 

Words meaning 多變 (a, n) (II)

flux (fluhks)(n): Definition

流動; 持續變化; 動盪 (n)

Liu2 dong4; chi2 xu4 bian4 hua4; dong4 dang4 (Note: chi2 = ㄔˊ)

 

flux (n):  (1) 流動 flow or flowing, (2)持續變化 continuous change, passage, or movement; a continuing succession of changes, (3)動盪 a state of uncertainty and instability following a major event

 

Sentence pattern:

a flux of sg (= a continued flow of)  流動

sg in flux/sg in a state of flux/sg is subject to constant flux 持續變化

the flux following an event 動盪

 

influx (in-fluhks)(n): flowing in

流入 (n)

Liu2 ru4 (Note: ru4 = ㄖㄨˋ)

influx of people/influx of sg

 

efflux (ef-luhks)(n): flowing out

流出 (n)

Liu2 chu

efflux of people/efflux of sg

 

Example:

一直有健全的變化 

It is in a healthy state of flux

Yi zhi2 you3 jian4 quan2 di  bian4 hua4 (Note: zhi2 = ㄓˊ, quan2 = ㄑㄩㄢˊ, di = ㄉㄜ˙)

 

凡事變動不停

All things are in flux/all things are constantly in flux/all things are in constant flux/all things are in a constant state of flux/all things are subject to constant flux. .

Fan2 shi4 bian4 dong4 bu4 ting2 (Note: shi4 = ㄕˋ)

 

時光流逝  世事多變   

Time passes, thing changes, and the world is in its protean state of flux.  

Shi2 kuang liu2 shi4  shi4 shi4 duo bian4 (Note: shi2 = ㄕˊ, shi4 = ㄕˋ)

(Protean proh-tee-uhn = extremely variable 多變)

 

中共在1949年取得中國大陸後 社會動盪 有數年之久!

The flux continued for years following the takeover of China’s mainland in 1949 by CCP (Chinese Communist Party)!.

Zhong kong zai4 yi jiu3 si4 jiu3 nian2 qu3 de2 zhong kuo2 da4 lu4 hou4  she4 huei4 dong4 dang4 you3 shu4 nian2 zhi jiu3

 

外國人才 流入矽谷

a foreign brain influx into Silicon Valley/an influx of foreign brains into Silicon Valley, 

Wai4 kuo2 ren2 cai2 liu2 ru4 xi4 ku3 (Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, cai2 = ㄘㄞˊ, ru4 = ㄖㄨˋ)

 

宜蘭縣年輕人出外謀生 這使過去40年人口沒有增減!

There is a constant efflux of young adults for work from Ilan county into neighboring cities, rendering the county population roughly in a steady state over the past 4 decades. 

Yi2 lan2 xian4 nian2 qing ren2 chu wai4 mou2 sheng  zhe4 shi3 kuo4 qu4 si4 shi2 nian2 ren2 kou3 mei2 you3 zeng jian3 (qing = ㄑ一ㄥ, ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ, qu4 = ㄑㄩˋ)  

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

June 6, 2013 (Thursday)  original

December 9, 2014 (Tuesday)  updated

 

Words meaning 多變 (a, n) (I) 

fickle (fik-uh-l)(a): Definition

(心意/興致/人) 多變(善變) (a)

(xin yi4/xing4 zhi)  duo bian4(shan4 bian4)

(Note: zhi = ㄓˋ)  

 

fickle (a):  (心意/興致/人) 多變(善變) (a) given to ready change due to irresolution, caprice, whim or instability/characterized by changeableness/marked by lack of steadfastness/unpredictable

 

Sentence pattern:

Sy is fickle/Sg is fickle

fickle sy/sg (prenominal)

 

Example: 

情人劈腿

a fickle lover/an inconstant lover (= not constant or loyal in affections)

qing2 ren2 pi tuei3 (Note: qing2 = ㄑ一ㄥˊ, ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ)

 

這些人易被誤導 無定見

These people are easily misled and fickle in their views  (= not firm)

Zhe4 xie ren2 bei4 wu4 dao3   ye3 wu2 ding4 jian4

(Note: zhe4 = ㄓㄜˋ,  ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ

 

民意如流水 變化大 也不合理

Public opinion is fickle and subject to dramatic and irrational shifts.

Min2 yi4 ru2 liu2 shuei3    bian4 hua4 da4    ye3 bu4 he2 li3

(Note: ru = ㄖㄨˊ, he 2= ㄏㄜˊ)

 

人心多變

a fickle public

ren2 xin duo bian4

(Note: ren2 = ㄖㄣˊ)

 

輿論多變

fickle public opinion

yu2 lun4 duo bian4

(Note: yu2 = ㄩˊ)

 

 

 

 

神農子教室: 神農子英語

June 4, 2013 (Tuesday)  Original

December 8, 2014 (Monday)  Updated

 

to tantalize (tan-tl-ahyz)(vt): Definition

 (看得到 得不到) 吊足胃口 

(Kan4 de2 dao4   de2 bu4 dao4)   diao4 zu2 wei4 kou3

 

to tantalize (vt): (看得到 得不到) 吊足胃口 has 4 components in definition or meaning: (1) the sight of sg, (2) sg that you desire, (3) but it is out of your reach or inaccessible to you, (4) you feel frustrated or it torments you as a result.

 

Sentence pattern:

Sg tantalizes sy. 

 

Example:   

幼齒美腿穿著熱褲 幼齒帥哥看了  吊足胃口  

The young lass’ legs in hot pants tantalize young lads especially! 

you4 chi3 mei2 tuei3   chuan zhe re4 ku4   you4 chi3 shuai4 ge   kan4 le  diao4 zu2 wei4 kou3

ㄧㄡˋ  ㄔˇ  ㄇㄟˊ ㄊㄨㄟˇ  ㄔㄨㄢ  ㄓㄜ˙ ㄖㄜˋ ㄎㄨˋ  一ㄡˋ    ㄔˇ  ㄕㄨㄞˋ  ㄍㄜ  ㄎㄢˋ ㄌㄜ˙  ㄉ一ㄠˋ  ㄗㄨˊ  ㄨㄟˋ  ㄎㄡˇ  

 

這些作家 只交作品精采大要 吊足 出版商 胃口

These writers tantalize their publishers by submitting synopses that sparkle. 

zhe4 xie zuo4 jia   zhi3 jiao zuo4 pin3 jing cai3 da4 yao4   diao4 zu2 chu ban3 shang wei4 kou3

ㄓㄜˋ ㄒ一ㄝ  ㄗㄨㄛˋ  ㄐ一ㄚ  ㄓˇ  ㄐ一ㄠ  ㄐ一ㄥ  ㄘㄞˇ  ㄗㄨㄛˋ  ㄆ一ㄣˇ  ㄉㄚˋ  一ㄠˋ   ㄉ一ㄠˋ  ㄗㄨˊ  ㄔㄨ  ㄅㄢˇ  ㄕㄤ  ㄨㄟˋ  ㄎㄡˇ

 

這些美好食譜 吊足我胃口 

These wonderful recipes tantalize my taste buds.

zhe4 xie mei3 hao3 shi2 pu3   diao4 zu2 wo3 wei4 kou3

ㄓㄜˋ ㄒ一ㄝ  ㄇㄟˇ  ㄏㄠˇ  ㄕˊ  ㄆㄨˇ   ㄉ一ㄠˋ  ㄗㄨˊ  ㄨㄛˇ  ㄨㄟˋ  ㄎㄡˇ

 

這幾章 吊足我的創造力

These chapters will tantalize my creativity.

zhe4 ji3 zhang   huei4 diao4 zu2 wo3 de chuang4 zao4 li4

ㄓㄜˋ  ㄐ一ˇ  ㄓㄤ  ㄏㄨㄟˋ  ㄉ一ㄠˋ  ㄗㄨˊ  ㄨㄛˇ  ㄉㄜ˙  ㄔㄨㄤˋ  ㄗㄠˋ  ㄌ一ˋ